Temperance Movement

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Temperance Movement


(Russian, trezvennichestvo), a religious sectarian movement that arose in Russia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries among the urban petite bourgeoisie. Followers of the temperance movement strove for religious and moral perfection and for “salvation of the soul” through abstention from drinking, smoking, and other vices.

The tenets of the movement included belief in the “beneficial power” of the “prophets” (leaders of temperance groups and sects). The movement was characterized by superstitions, charlatanism, and the staging of “miraculous healings.” A number of temperance sects were named for their leaders; examples are the Churikovtsy, Koloskovtsy, Anisimovtsy, and Mironovtsy.

After the October Revolution of 1917, as a result of the sharp decline in the number of religious believers in the USSR, the number of followers of the temperance movement decreased considerably. There are still a few followers in some regions of the RSFSR.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Westerners played an indispensable role in transforming India's caste-based teetotalism into an organized movement: "the temperance movement in India was organized, patronized, and instructed by English temperance agitators." (30) The first national conference on temperance, held at Madras in 1888, symbolized the birth of an all-india temperance movement, but it was a British politician, W.
The attempts to market beer as a healthful substitute for distilled spirits were received with extreme skepticism by the temperance movement. They were particularly worried by Jacobsen's lecture of 1884, feeling that their goal--to create a better and more sober society--was highly threatened.(26) According to the temperance movement, bottom--fermented beer in the late 19th century seems to have been not only a substitute for, but also a supplement to, distilled spirits.
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As a result of the growth in the temperance movement, and as organizations grew in size, power, and influence, the quantities of consumed liquor began a steady decline.
This story, and others like it, illustrate how the image of victimized woman came to dominate the temperance movement's notions of gender by the 1830s.
But the feelings that gave rise to Prohibition remained just beneath the surface of the American psyche, and in the 1970s a new temperance movement emerged, manifested in the rapid growth of the recovery movement and Alcoholics Anonymous, of private alcoholism treatment a la the Betty Ford Center, and of government efforts to limit alcohol consumption.
The temperance movement began in the United States in the early 19th century and rapidly spread to Britain and many other countries.
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Conversely, I suggest that if others wish to conflate their personal beliefs as a pretext of introducing a moral code onto others, they should stop being so sanctimonious, ally themselves to the Temperance Movement, and communicate their wishes as good old religious zealots have always done - to the beat of their myopic drum.
But in the 19th Century the temperance movement, backed by local gentry, was fighting against the drunkenness, gambling and fighting that they believed was caused by the drink, thus many of the beerhouses closed.
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