Genghis Khan

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Genghis Khan:

see Jenghiz KhanJenghiz Khan
or Genghis Khan
, Mongolian Chinggis Khaan, 1167?–1227, Mongol conqueror, originally named Temujin. He succeeded his father, Yekusai, as chieftain of a Mongol tribe and then fought to become ruler of a Mongol confederacy.
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Genghis Khan

 

(personal name, Temujin). Born circa 1155, in the district of Deliun-Boldok, on the Onon River; died Aug. 25, 1227. Military leader and founder of the unified Mongol empire.

Genghis Khan was the son of Yesugei, a member of the royal Borjigin clan. By 1204 he had eliminated his principal rivals and, having seized vast territories, became the de facto ruler of the many clan-tribal alliances in the subjugated regions. In 1206, at a khurultai (assembly) of the steppe aristocracy, he was proclaimed the great khan of all the tribes and was given the title Genghis, from the Turkic tengis (ocean, sea).

In domestic policy, Genghis Khan concentrated on uniting the Mongol tribes and centralizing the government of the newly created state in the interests of the feudalized clan-tribal aristocracy. In 1206 he promulgated decrees that constituted a codification of customary law (yasa). He divided the Mongol tribes into military-administrative units called thousands: at the command of the khan each unit had to produce 1,000 mounted soldiers. The thousands, along with pasturelands, were granted as fiefs (khubi) to his relatives and to the noions —members of a new class of feudal lords made up of his trusted lieutenants. Genghis Khan created a personal guard (keshig) of 10,000 men that served as the principal force in the suppression of any stirrings of discontent in the empire.

In foreign policy, Genghis Khan sought to extend the territory under his control as far as possible. His strategy and tactics were based on thorough reconnaissance and sudden attack; his troops tried to divide the enemy forces and set up ambushes using special detachments to lure the enemy. He also made use of large groups of cavalry that could maneuver quickly.

Genghis Khan subdued the peoples of Siberia and eastern Turkestan between 1207 and 1211 and attacked the Jurchen kingdom of Chin in 1211 (seeMONGOL CONQUESTS OF THE 13TH CENTURY). These wars, waged in the interests of the noion class, wreaked havoc on the peoples of the subjugated countries, most of which had achieved a higher level of economic and cultural development than the Mongol tribes, and hampered the development of the Mongol empire itself and the broad masses of its people—the simple arats (herdsmen bound to the land). The wars exhausted the empire and led to its political, economic, and cultural decline by the end of the 13th century. Genghis Khan died in the Tangut state of Hsi Hsia during a campaign undertaken in 1226.

REFERENCES

Tataro-mongoly v Azii i Evrope: Sb. st. Moscow, 1970.
Kychanov, E. I. Zhizn’ Temuchzhina, dumavshevo pokorit’ mir. Moscow, 1973.

N. TS. MUNKUEV

Genghis Khan

(1167–1227) Mongol chieftain overran most of Asia and eastern Europe (1206–1227). [Asian Hist.: EB, 7: 1013–1016]

Genghis Khan

original name Temuchin or Temujin. ?1162--1227, Mongol ruler, whose empire stretched from the Black Sea to the Pacific
References in periodicals archive ?
Temujin-te n kou*d oterle-n gu bos-uad mori*d-iyan bari-ju Temujin niken mori unu-bA [degrees].
A warning: The festival is big on audience participation, and in the spirit of that tradition everyone will have a chance to join in the performances of Temujin Dance Company, balletLORENT, and Monitango.
Yesugei and his wife named their first son Temujin (TEM-yoo-jin) after that vanquished rival.
Using the Secret History as both a map and a kind of shamanistic box kite, they found the hillock where the infant Temujin had been born to an outcast family in 1162.
The most visionary justification for war, propagated by The New York Times' Thomas Friedman and Bush's inner circle, imagines a n charismatic warrior named Temujin united the nomadic tribes of Mongolia.
Some 800 years ago, a fearsome, charismatic warrior named Temujin united the nomadic tribes of Mongolia.
In the thirteenth century, a Mongol chief named Temujin managed to have himself elected Genghis Khan (universal ruler; see above) of a vast confederation of Mongol tribes (with some Turkic tribes).
Fue en 1206 cuando uno de los terratenientes mongoles mas ricos llamado Temujin fue nombrado Soberano Universal --Genghis Khan en su idioma-- bajo cuyo nombre entro en la historia mundial.
Wade Allen and Temujin Jones, who have been with the department about 30 months but are now on administrative leave, are assigned to the West Los Angeles-area office, said CHP Officer Rhett Price.
The product of an era of bloodshed and struggle between different tribal factions in northeastern Mongolia, Temujin (his name at birth) grew up to be a shrewd warrior.
Named Temujin by his father, who died when the boy was thirteen years old, he took the title by which he is commonly remembered, and which means " perfect warrior.