Genghis Khan

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Genghis Khan:

see Jenghiz KhanJenghiz Khan
or Genghis Khan
, Mongolian Chinggis Khaan, 1167?–1227, Mongol conqueror, originally named Temujin. He succeeded his father, Yekusai, as chieftain of a Mongol tribe and then fought to become ruler of a Mongol confederacy.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Genghis Khan

 

(personal name, Temujin). Born circa 1155, in the district of Deliun-Boldok, on the Onon River; died Aug. 25, 1227. Military leader and founder of the unified Mongol empire.

Genghis Khan was the son of Yesugei, a member of the royal Borjigin clan. By 1204 he had eliminated his principal rivals and, having seized vast territories, became the de facto ruler of the many clan-tribal alliances in the subjugated regions. In 1206, at a khurultai (assembly) of the steppe aristocracy, he was proclaimed the great khan of all the tribes and was given the title Genghis, from the Turkic tengis (ocean, sea).

In domestic policy, Genghis Khan concentrated on uniting the Mongol tribes and centralizing the government of the newly created state in the interests of the feudalized clan-tribal aristocracy. In 1206 he promulgated decrees that constituted a codification of customary law (yasa). He divided the Mongol tribes into military-administrative units called thousands: at the command of the khan each unit had to produce 1,000 mounted soldiers. The thousands, along with pasturelands, were granted as fiefs (khubi) to his relatives and to the noions —members of a new class of feudal lords made up of his trusted lieutenants. Genghis Khan created a personal guard (keshig) of 10,000 men that served as the principal force in the suppression of any stirrings of discontent in the empire.

In foreign policy, Genghis Khan sought to extend the territory under his control as far as possible. His strategy and tactics were based on thorough reconnaissance and sudden attack; his troops tried to divide the enemy forces and set up ambushes using special detachments to lure the enemy. He also made use of large groups of cavalry that could maneuver quickly.

Genghis Khan subdued the peoples of Siberia and eastern Turkestan between 1207 and 1211 and attacked the Jurchen kingdom of Chin in 1211 (seeMONGOL CONQUESTS OF THE 13TH CENTURY). These wars, waged in the interests of the noion class, wreaked havoc on the peoples of the subjugated countries, most of which had achieved a higher level of economic and cultural development than the Mongol tribes, and hampered the development of the Mongol empire itself and the broad masses of its people—the simple arats (herdsmen bound to the land). The wars exhausted the empire and led to its political, economic, and cultural decline by the end of the 13th century. Genghis Khan died in the Tangut state of Hsi Hsia during a campaign undertaken in 1226.

REFERENCES

Tataro-mongoly v Azii i Evrope: Sb. st. Moscow, 1970.
Kychanov, E. I. Zhizn’ Temuchzhina, dumavshevo pokorit’ mir. Moscow, 1973.

N. TS. MUNKUEV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Genghis Khan

(1167–1227) Mongol chieftain overran most of Asia and eastern Europe (1206–1227). [Asian Hist.: EB, 7: 1013–1016]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Genghis Khan

original name Temuchin or Temujin. ?1162--1227, Mongol ruler, whose empire stretched from the Black Sea to the Pacific
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Kouse stoked a fire in the forge, a hearth used by blacksmiths to heat metal, and, as the tour guide brought in the first guests, he and Temujin hid their Home Depot tools and demonstrated how settlers made tools, working pieces of blazing iron with antique hammers and tongs.
Tomorrow Temujin, Davey Bandman - Forum, Darlington pounds 5; Vinyl Jacket - Studio, Hartlepool pounds 3.
Which feared warrior and conqueror was originally named Temujin?
Sent on a seemingly run-of-the-mill mission to return a lost ferret to its owner along with his teacher Shikamaru and female classmate Sakura, Naruto becomes entangled in the machinations of a ruthless invading force and its loyal front-lines warrior Temujin. Though the attackers claim to be founding a utopia that will spread peace to the world, their merciless quest for the stone of Gelel has already brought them into fierce conflict with Sand Ninja Kankuro and Gaara!
of Hawaii-Leeward College) does not present a full biography of Temujin, Genghis Khan (1162-1227), focusing rather on how, as the teenage son of a minor chieftain, he unified the Mongol tribes, created a powerful military machine, and used it to defeat and conquer mighty empires in China, Central Asia, and Persia.
Likewise: Qoaqcin emegen ugule-run 'Ger ci oyira bu-yu; Temujin-i bu-kuy-i ugey ese uqa-bi; qoyina-ca bos-uad ire-bi bi' kee-bi 'Old woman Qoaqchin spoke: "The tent is nearby, of course," [she] said; "[But] whether Temujin is there or not I didn't notice, [for] I got up and came [away] from the back [of the tent]."' (2453-55).
Having survived abandonment, starvation and numerous hostile attacks, Temujin of the Wolves has united the warring Mongol tribes into one nation and earned the accolade Genghis Khan.
48 Temujin was the original name of which (in)famous conqueror?
Martin Dysart Richard Griffiths Alan Strang Daniel Radcliffe Frank Strang Jonathan Cullen Dora Strang Gabrielle Reidy Hesther Saloman Jenny Agutter Harry Dalton Colin Haigh Young Horseman, Nugget Will Kemp Nurse Karen Meagher With: Joel Corpuz, Jami Reid-Quarrell, Greig Cooke, Temujin Gill, Jonathan Readwin.
One such, named Temujin at his birth around 1162, was feted lavishly this year on the 800th anniversary of his rise to power--feted, indeed, with an outpouring of reverence that startled those Westerners who know him by his title, Chinggis, also spelled Genghis, Khan.
A warning: The festival is big on audience participation, and in the spirit of that tradition everyone will have a chance to join in the performances of Temujin Dance Company, balletLORENT, and Monitango.
Yesugei and his wife named their first son Temujin (TEM-yoo-jin) after that vanquished rival.