Timur

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Timur

(tĭmo͝or`) or

Tamerlane

(tăm`ərlān), c.1336–1405, Mongol conqueror, b. Kesh, near Samarkand. He is also called Timur Leng [Timur the lame]. He was the son of a tribal leader, and he claimed (apparently for the first time in 1370) to be a descendant of Jenghiz KhanJenghiz Khan
or Genghis Khan
, Mongolian Chinggis Khaan, 1167?–1227, Mongol conqueror, originally named Temujin. He succeeded his father, Yekusai, as chieftain of a Mongol tribe and then fought to become ruler of a Mongol confederacy.
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. With an army composed of Turks and Turkic-speaking Mongols, remnants of the empire of the MongolsMongols
, Asian people, numbering about 6 million and distributed mainly in the Republic of Mongolia, the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of China, and Kalmykia and the Buryat Republic of Russia.
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, Timur spent his early military career in subduing his rivals in what is now TurkistanTurkistan
or Turkestan
, historic region of central Asia. Western, or Russian, Turkistan extended from the Caspian Sea in the west to the Chinese frontier in the east and from the Aral-Irtysh watershed in the north to the borders of Iran and Afghanistan in the south.
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; by 1369 he firmly controlled the entire area from his capital at SamarkandSamarkand
, city (1991 pop. 395,000), capital of Samarkand region, in Uzbekistan, on the Trans-Caspian RR. It is one of the oldest existing cities in the world and the oldest of Central Asia.
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.

Campaigns he waged against Persia occupied him until 1387. By that time he had in his possession the lands stretching E from the Euphrates River. He advanced (1392) across the Euphrates, conquered the territory between the Caspian and Black seas, and invaded several of the Russian states. By weakening the Crimean Tatars he helped clear the way for the conquests of the grand duchy of Moscow. Timur abandoned some of his Russian conquests to return to Samarkand and invade (1398) India along the route of the Indus River. He took Delhi and brought the Delhi SultanateDelhi Sultanate,
refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India (1210–1526). It was founded after Muhammad of Ghor defeated Prithvi Raj and captured Delhi in 1192.
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 to an end, but he withdrew with little addition to his domain.

In 1400, Timur ravaged Georgia and proceeded to the Levant, where he took Aleppo and Baghdad. His next war was fought in Asia Minor against the Ottoman Turks, and in 1402, at Angora, he captured their sultan, Beyazid I, who, contrary to popular belief, was well treated. Timur died while planning an invasion of China. His tomb at Samarkand was long known to archaeologists, but it is only recently that his skeleton, buried in a deep crypt, was found.

Timur's reputation is that of a cruel conqueror. After capturing certain cities he slaughtered thousands of the defenders (perhaps 80,000 at Delhi) and built pyramids of their skulls. Although a Muslim, he was scarcely more merciful to those of his own faith than to those he considered infidels. His positive achievements were the encouragement of art, literature, and science and the construction of vast public works. He had little hope that his vast conquests would remain intact, and before his death he arranged for them to be divided among his sons. The TimuridsTimurids
, dynasty founded by Timur (or Tamerlane). After the death of Timur (1405) there was a struggle for power over his empire, which then extended from the Euphrates River to the Jaxartes (Syr Darya) and Indus rivers.
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 are the line of rulers descended from him. Christopher Marlowe's play Tamburlaine luridly recounts his conquests.

Bibliography

See biographies by H. Hookham (1962) and B. F. Manz (1989); J. H. Sanders, tr., Tamerlane (tr. of late 14th-century Arabic work by A. Ibn Arabshah, 1936).

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References in periodicals archive ?
He explained: "Temur is a reliable member of our squad and, while it might be frustrating for him if he's not playing every week, he might find it even more frustrating if he wasn't at Newcastle.
The third chukker was identical to the second one as once again three goals came from Master Paints Black - a brace by Ahmed Ali and one goal by Raja Temur - while a single goal was converted by Diamond Paints/Newage through Salvador to finish the chukker with Master Paints having 7-5 lead.
However, the winners proved their domination in the third chukker, adding four goals, three from Mumtaz and one from Raja Temur to help their team take a firm lead of 6-3A1/2.
The only goal of the third chukker came from Remington when Raja Temur fired in a field goal to reduce the deficit to 5-3.
Tiwana played a vital role in Master Paints Black's victory by converting fantastic four goals while his teammates Matias Vial Parez hammered a hat-trick, Raja Temur Nadeem a brace and Sufi M Haroon a goal.
For Polo D Sufi, who had half-goal handicap, Ahmed Ali Tiwana pumped in two goals while Sufi Haroon and Raja Temur Nadeem chipped in with a goal apiece.
EFU team consists of Syed M Turab Rizvi, Syed M Aun Rizvi, Edward Banner Eve and Raja Temur Nadeem while Newage/Diamond Paints team comprises Mir Shoaib Ahmed, Alman Jalil Azam, Adnan Jalil Azam and Hissam Ali Hyder.
Law enforcement officers conducted a special operation to identify any hostages and concealed weapons, as well as to check passports in large residential areas of Amir Temur and Turan micro-districts of Osh, reported the press service of the commandant of the Osh city on June 29.
Georgian midfielder Temur Ketsbaia is already heading for Newcastle in a pounds 2million end-of-season deal.
LAHORE -- Star performer Ahmed Ali Tiwana steered Master Paints Black to a thumping 10-4 triumph over Barry's in the International Steels National Open Polo Championship for Quaid-e-Azam Gold Cup here at Lahore Polo Club ground on Saturday.Ahmed Ali Tiwana played a vital role in Master Paints Black's victory by converting fantastic four goals while his teammates Matias Vial Parez hammered a hat-trick, Raja Temur Nadeem a brace and Sufi Mohammad Haroon a goal.
Matias Vial Parez stole the day with his swashbuckling performance as he fired in fabulous five goals while his teammates Ahmed Ali Tiwana contributed with a hat-trick and Raja Temur Nadeem with a brace.