Ten Years War

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Ten Years War,

1868–78, struggle for Cuban independence from Spain. Discontent was caused in Cuba by excessive taxation, trade restrictions, and virtual exclusion of native Cubans from governmental posts. Disaffection grew until 1868, when Carlos Manuel de CéspedesCéspedes, Carlos Manuel de
, 1819–74, Cuban revolutionist. He completed his education in Spain and there took part (1843) in a revolution led by Juan Prim. On returning (1868) to Cuba he began the revolt by proclaiming the demands of Cuban liberals.
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 and other patriots raised the standard of revolt. On Apr. 20, 1869, the revolutionary republic of Cuba was established, with BayamoBayamo
, city (1995 est. pop. 132,000), Granma prov., SE Cuba. It is a manufacturing and transportation center. Cattle raising and sugar refining are the main industries. Founded in 1513, Bayamo was an inland port until the 19th cent.
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 as provisional capital. The capital was burned later in the year, and the republican government was forced to change its seat frequently. The warfare was purely guerrilla fighting without major battles, but it raged furiously in the eastern provinces. Chief field commanders were Máximo Gómez y BáezGómez y Báez, Máximo
, 1836–1905, Cuban revolutionary, b. Dominican Republic. He served in the Spanish army but joined the Cuban revolutionists in 1868 and became commander in chief in 1873.
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, Antonio Maceo, and Calixto García y Iñiguez; late in the war the government was headed by Tomás Estrada PalmaEstrada Palma, Tomás
, 1835–1908, Cuban revolutionist and first president (1902–6) of Cuba. An active participant in the Ten Years War (1868–78), he became a general (1876) and was captured by the Spanish (1877).
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. Under orders of the Spanish commandant, Gen. Valeriano Weyler y NicolauWeyler y Nicolau, Valeriano
, 1838–1930, Spanish general. His early career was spent in Santo Domingo and Cuba, where he served during the Ten Years War. He returned to Spain in 1873 and fought against the Carlists (1875–76).
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 carried out bloody and ruthless reprisals against the patriots. The Cubans retaliated by attacking all upholders of the Spanish cause. U.S. sympathy for the rebels was intensified by the destruction of U.S. property in Cuba, while the activities of American mercenaries and soldiers of fortune aroused the indignation of Spain. In 1873 the Virginius affairVirginius affair,
1873, incident that came near to causing war between the United States and Spain. The Virginius, a filibustering ship, was fraudulently flying the American flag and carrying arms to the Cubans in the Ten Years War.
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 brought Spanish-American relations to a crisis. The war dragged on without decisive incident. When internal affairs in Spain settled somewhat, greater attention was given the war in Cuba. General Martínez de CamposMartínez de Campos, Arsenio
, 1831–1900, Spanish general. He served in Morocco (1859–60), in Mexico (1861–63), and in Cuba (1869–72). He played a leading role in the proclamation (1874) of Alfonso XII as king and helped bring the Carlist Wars to an
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 managed to conclude the Treaty of Zanjón, which nominally granted reforms and gave the Cubans governmental representation; the promises were not kept, and conditions did not improve. The costly and bitter war was seemingly without result, but actually it foreshadowed the Cuban war of independence that broke out in 1895 and the subsequent Spanish-American War.
References in periodicals archive ?
Marti's song of Freedom" contains 7 verse excerpts from Marti's "Versos Sencillos," plus a great deal of history of the Ten Years' War for independence in Cuba.
He returned to the US after the war and embarked on a gun-running expedition to the northern coast of Cuba for the Cuban Liberation Junta during the Cuban Ten Years' War of Independence.
However, this reviewer would have liked to see greater emphasis on Cuba's Ten Years' War [1868-1878] as a precipitating factor for abolition.
Indeed, Cuban planters were the last ones in the hemisphere to import African slaves after 1852, and only with the Ten Years' War (1868-1878) did some elite white Cubans begin to think of the island's people of African descent as Cubans (of color).
During Cuba's Ten Years' War, she created the first women's political group to openly support the rebels.
Since the 1868 Ten Years' War against Spain, Cuba has projected itself as the victim of seemingly insurmountable forces.
Part of the reason for this new appreciation lies in her commanding comparative analysis of developments of Louisiana and Cuba, two major former sugar-producing slave economies, in the years after the American Civil War and the Cuban Ten Years' War and the shorter War of Independence.
Cuba's revolutionary heroes of the Ten Years' War (1868-78) and the Independence War of 1895-98 are relegated to the backstage, behind the island's forests and cane fields.
As with the Ten Years' War, this kind of propaganda successfully extinguished the second phase of the liberation struggle.
Three years later, fighting as a general in the Ten Years' War, he was captured by the Spanish and executed in Santiago de Cuba.
Principal wars: Moroccan War (1859-1860); Peruvian War (1866); Ten Years' War (1868-1878); Second Carlist War (1873-1876); Spanish-American War (1898).
a first-class and thorough description of this problem in the case of this war, in many ways still a civil war although not as much one as its predecessor, the Ten Years' War of 1868-78.