We call the study areas located south of the Tenojoki valley and west and east of the Utsjoki valley "northern mountains" to distinguish them from Lanka Mountain, located farther south near Karigasniemi, which at 620 m is 200 to 300 m higher than the northern mountains.
Pine afforestations dating from 1928 to the late 1960s (Holtmeier, 1974) are located on the river terraces in the Tenojoki and Utsjoki valleys.
On Rodjanoaivi, no living new pines were found although solitary mature pines appear in the Tenojoki valley, mainly near Levajok on the Norwegian side of the river.
On the mountains bordering the Tenojoki River (Rodjanoaivi, Koahppeloaivi-Staloskaidi, Ailigas) and also on Riikkavarri (260-320 m), new pines are still exceptional.
Seed supply from these pines (and a few new pines at higher elevations) is very likely as important as seed transport from the pine forests on the lower mountain slope and the Tenojoki valley.