Ternopil (tyĭrnô`pəl), Rus. Ternopol, Pol. Tarnopol, city (1989 pop. 205,000), capital of Ternopil region, W Ukraine, on the Seret River, a tributary of the Dniester. It is an important rail junction and highway hub. Industries include food processing and the manufacture of machinery, building materials, consumer goods, and porcelain. Founded by the princes of Galicia in 1540 as a castle, Ternopil was fortified and developed as a trade center. It declined after passing to Austria in 1772 but revived in the 19th cent. with the coming of the railroad. The city became part of Poland in 1919 and of Ukraine in 1939.