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(formerly Tamopol’), a city and administrative center of Ternopol’ Oblast, Ukrainian SSR. (The city is named after the Ternovye Fields, the site of an ancient Russian settlement destroyed by the Mongol-Tatars in the 14th century.) Situated on the Seret River, a tributary of the Dnestr. Junction of railroad lines to L’vov, Shepetovka, Khmel’nitskii, Chernovtsy, and Stryi and of highways to Dubno, L’vov, Khmel’nitskii, and Chernovtsy. Airport. Population, 120,000 (1975; 50,000 in 1939; 52,000 in 1959; 85,000 in 1970).
Ternopol’ has existed since 1540, when it was part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It came under Austrian control in 1772, was part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1815, and then became part of Austria and Austria-Hungary. From 1920 to 1939, the city was part of bourgeois Poland. In December 1939 it became an oblast administrative center of the Ukrainian SSR. Ternopol’ was occupied by fascist German troops from June 30, 1941, to Apr. 15,1944.
Ternopol’ is a center for industry in the Ukraine. Its food-processing and light industries are represented by a meat-packing combine, a sugar mill, a brewery, a cotton combine, and a synthetic-leather plant. In addition to plants producing electrical armatures, agricultural machinery, and public catering equipment, there are two repair plants for automotive vehicles, a repair and maintenance plant, and a porcelain plant. Construction materials are produced in the Stroiindustriia Combine and in plants turning out reinforced-concrete units and structural members. Furniture is also produced.
Ternopol’ is an important cultural center, with institutes for medicine, pedagogy, and finance and economics and a branch of the L’vov Polytechnic Institute. The city also has technicums for Soviet trade and cooperative trade and a conservatory. In addition to the Shevchenko Theater of Music and Drama, there is a philharmonic society and a museum of local lore.
Of architectural interest are the Khristorozhdestvenskaia Church with adjoining defense tower (1596–98), the Vozdvizhen’e Church (16th century), the Voskresenskaia Church (17th century), and a Dominican church (1740’s). During the postwar years, the city has been reconstructed according to a general plan (1945–54, architects V. I. Novikov and N. F. Panchuk). This work has resulted in the construction of the Zagrebel’skii and Druzhba apartment complexes and a number of large public buildings, such as the House of Political Education of the oblast committee of the Ukrainian Communist Party (1971). Lake Komsomol’skoe has been created, and a monument to V. I. Lenin has been built (bronze and granite, 1967; sculptor M. E. Roberman).