Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere, and Radio-Wave Propagation
Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere, and Radio-Wave Propagation, Institute of
(full name, Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere, and Radio-wave Propagation of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR; IZMIRAN), a scientific research institute that studies the phenomena of terrestrial magnetism, the physical properties of the earth’s ionosphere and magnetosphere, and the propagation of radio waves within them and investigates the influence of solar activity on geophysical (electromagnetic) processes. The institute is located at the Scientific Center of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Krasnaia Fakhra (near Moscow). It was founded in 1939 from the Office of General Magnetic Surveying and the Pavlovo Magnetic Observatory, which was part of the Central Geophysical Observatory. N. V. Pushkov was its organizer and first director.
Izmiran includes the Leningrad Branch, which studies the permanent geomagnetic field and magnetic cartography, as well as the Kaliningrad and Arkhangel’sk comprehensive magnetic-ionospheric observatories. The institute owns the nonmagnetic schooner Zaria, from which research on the magnetic field of the world’s oceans, vertical sounding of the ionosphere, and investigation of cosmic rays are conducted. The institute participates in studies at antarctic stations. Magnetometers that have been installed on artificial earth satellites and spaceships and the Luna and Venera stations were developed at the institute.
The results of scientific work are published in Trudy IZMIRAN (Transactions of IZMIRAN: since 1936); the monthly review Kosmicheskie dannye (Cosmic Data; since 1938), which contains the primary materials of observations; Mesiachnyi prognoz rasprostraneniia radiovoln (Monthly Radio-wave Propagation Forecast; since 1947); and the journal Geomagnetism i aeronomiia (Geomagnetism and Aeronomy; since 1961). The short-range ionospheric forecasting laboratory makes daily radio reports on the condition of the ionosphere. The Leningrad Branch periodically compiles charts of the magnetic field on the surface of the earth.
REFERENCELiakhov, B. M. “Iz istorii IZMlRANa” Zemlia i Vselennaia, 1969, no. 6.
B. M. LIAKHOV