Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

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Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs,

an early Jewish work, with some Christian interpolations, reckoned among the Old Testament PseudepigraphaPseudepigrapha
[Gr.,=things falsely ascribed], a collection of early Jewish and some Jewish-Christian writings composed between c.200 B.C. and c.A.D. 200, not found in the Bible or rabbinic writings.
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. The work may have been written as early as 1st cent. B.C. It purports to be the final sayings ("Testaments") of the 12 patriarchs, i.e., the 12 sons of Jacob, to their respective families. They each reflect on the meaning of life and the sins which they have committed. Many of the Testaments espouse apocalyptic theology, teaching an ethical dualism similar to the Dead Sea ScrollsDead Sea Scrolls,
ancient leather and papyrus scrolls first discovered in 1947 in caves on the NW shore of the Dead Sea. Most of the documents were written or copied between the 1st cent. B.C. and the first half of the 1st cent. A.D.
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.

Bibliography

See J. H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (Vol. I, 1983).

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Scrolls like the Rule of the Community, the Thanksgiving Hymns, 4QRitual of Purification A-B (4Q414, 4Q512), and Testament of Levi exhibit comparable understandings of water ritual as an inception to spiritual experiences (pp.
y STONE, M., <<Remark on the Aramaic Testament of Levi from the Geniza (Planches XIII-XIV)>>, ReB (1979) 2, 214-229.
himself acknowledges that appeal to Testament of Levi is tenuous because it betrays Christian influence, if not authorship.
In the intertestamental Testament of Levi (6:2), Levi had a similar reaction when an angel opened heaven's gate and allowed him to see God's throne.
he selects seven out of Josephus' sixteen post-exilic high-priests for the seven priests of the Testament of Levi. He correctly says that a jubilee is about two generations, but he leaves rather a large gap between Eliashib, dated 448, and Jaddua, dated 332.
Chapter 10 discusses some philological and linguistic problems pertaining to the Aramaic Levi Document from Qumran, focusing on its relationship to the Geniza manuscripts of the Testament of Levi.
Thereafter, Stuckenbruck considers Tobit 11:14-15 (Tobit blesses God and 'all his holy angels'), Joseph and Asenath 14:1-12; 15:11-12 (Asenath possibly blesses the angel with God); Pseudo-Philo 13:6 (the feast of trumpets 'an offering for your watchers'), and a number of passages (in I Enoch, Testament of Levi, Testament of Dan, 3 Baruch, Pseudo-Philo, Life of Adam and Eve, and Testament of Solomon) in which angelic mediation of prayers is mentioned.
Romans 4, 11; Epistle of Barnabas 9, 6, and Testament of Levi 21, 22, and K.
His discussion of ~unbloody' is based on Massey Shepherd, and he takes no account of Daly's discussion of its use in the Testament of Levi or of Kenneth Stevenson's recent essay on the topic.
Support for the view that Judaism was active in seeking to win proselytes may be found in the Letter of Aristeas (266), the Sibylline Oracles (3.5-10), 2 Maccabees (9:17), the Pseudepigraphic Testament of Levi (14.41), the Pseudepigraphic Testament of Joseph, Philo (De Vita Mosis 1.27.147, De Virtutibus 20.102-4, and De Praemiis et Poenis 26.152), and Josephus (Against Apion 2.123.