Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

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Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, an early Jewish work, with some Christian interpolations, reckoned among the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. The work may have been written as early as 1st cent. B.C. It purports to be the final sayings (“Testaments”) of the 12 patriarchs, i.e., the 12 sons of Jacob, to their respective families. They each reflect on the meaning of life and the sins which they have committed. Many of the Testaments espouse apocalyptic theology, teaching an ethical dualism similar to the Dead Sea Scrolls.


See J. H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (Vol. I, 1983).

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The Pseudepigraphic Testament of Zebulun relates that Dan approached the disconsolate Reuben on his return from his strenuous efforts to discover the whereabouts of Joseph.
(16.) Testament of Zebulun in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, ed.