Testing of Materials

Testing of Materials


the determination of the technological and operational properties of materials, primarily by the use of machines and instruments.

Materials are tested for diverse purposes: to determine the properties of the raw material, to check quality at intermediate stages in production processes, to check finished products, and to aid research. Mechanical, physical, and chemical methods are used to study the properties of materials. Destructive methods damage or completely destroy the object of the tests; nondestructive ones permit further use of the object.

Broadly, there are four types of tests. Mechanical methods test the material’s ability to resist tension, compression, impact, bending, twisting, and shearing and its hardness and fatigue level (that is, its ability to withstand alternating mechanical loads without breaking). Physical tests determine electrical conductivity, heat conductivity, cold resistance, and magnetic and other properties. Chemical tests determine chemical composition and ability to withstand chemical action, especially oxidation. Structural tests (called metalomicrographic tests) determine the mac-rostructure, or structure visible to the naked eye; the microstructure, visible through a microscope; and the crystalline structure, determined primarily by X rays.

Various technological samplings used to check the ability of a material to resist deformation and the actions of temperature and chemicals or its machinability may also be considered testing of materials.

References in periodicals archive ?
The study was based on computer simulations, with additional data from testing of materials and components.
Actual physical testing of materials is integral to supplying the material models and data that make computer simulation as realistic as possible.
The new Rheo-Index from Ceast U.S.A., Inc., Fort Mill, S.C., not only performs standard tests to measure melt flow rate (MFR) and melt volume rate (MVR), but also allows automatic testing of materials with up to four different weights during a single test.
* Presence of Hazardous Materials: A professional environmental consultant should complete a survey and testing of materials to confirm the absence of asbestos, PCBs, lead, hydrofluorocarbons and other environmental hazards.
The computer base allows for random, yet consistent, testing of materials presented to all trainees during their entry-level training.
Merlin software, incorporated with the 5500 Series controllers, is a fully integrated modular software package designed for testing of materials and components.
These policies usually include: * Repair of damaged materials * Testing of materials prior to disturbance * Informing tenants and occupants * Containment and decontamination of abatement areas * Proper training of maintenance personnel * Development of an operations and maintenance" plan
Rubber testing of materials composition offered by the company includes polymer/rubber identification, filler content and identification, plasticizer content and identification, flame retardant content and curing agents content.