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Tewfik Pasha(Muhammad Tewfik) (toufēk` päshä`), 1852–92, khedive of Egypt (1879–92). He acceded to office when his father, Ismail Pasha, was deposed. In 1880, Tewfik accepted joint French-British control over the nation's finances. This act provoked a nationalist uprising that forced Tewfik to appoint a cabinet hostile to the European powers. The British and the French, however, quickly compelled the cabinet to resign. Later, in 1882, Great Britain, alarmed by renewed agitation, bombarded Alexandria and landed troops. France had refused to support this action and ended participation in Egyptian affairs, thus leaving Great Britain in sole control. Tewfik, who was generally Western in his outlook, devoted much attention to educational and legal reforms. He was succeeded as khedive by his son Abbas IIAbbas II
(Abbas Hilmi) , 1874–1944, last khedive of Egypt (1892–1914); son and successor of Tewfik Pasha. Nominally he ruled in subordination to the Ottoman Empire, but in fact Egypt was controlled by the British resident—at first Lord Cromer, and later Lord
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