Admiralty

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Admiralty,

in British government, department in charge of the operations of the Royal Navy until 1964. Originally established under Henry VIII, it was reorganized under Charles II. Five lords commissioners composed the board of Admiralty, each gradually developing his own field of specific responsibility, with the first lord responsible to Parliament. In 1832 it absorbed the navy board, previously responsible for the administrative organization. In 1964 the Admiralty became the navy department, coequal with the other service departments, of the ministry of defense. The navy is now directed by the Admiralty Board of the Defense Council, which consists of 4 naval and 7 civilian members, including the secretary of state for defense, who serves as chair.

Admiralty

 

(1) The basic center for construction of military ships for an isolated naval theater. In Russia from the end of the 17th century until the 19th century there were admiralties in Voronezh (1695–1711), St. Petersburg, Sevastopol’, Nikolaev, and Kronshtadt. Admiralties were usually located in harbors or ports and on riverbanks convenient for launching ships—for example, the major admiralty in St. Petersburg was located on the left bank of the Neva. During 1704–1844 ships were built at the admiralty, and later it housed offices of the fleet department.

(2) A building in Leningrad, a remarkable work in both Russian and world architecture. Begun as a shipyard in 1704 by Peter I, who had conceived the plan, the Admiralty was reconstructed by I. K. Korobov from 1727 until 1738 and by A. D. Zakharov from 1806 until its completion in 1823; Zakharov created a monumental building in the strict lines of the Russian Empire style. Three of Leningrad’s main roads meet at the Admiralty tower, the center of the city’s architectural composition. The Admiralty’s façades, sculpted by F. F. Shchedrin, I. I. Terebenev, and others, and its interiors have an organic connection with the architecture of the building, which is a brilliant example of the synthesis of these arts.

(3) In Great Britain the highest department and command organ of the naval forces; corresponds to a naval ministry. In 1690, as a board of temporary members of the Admiralty, it replaced the one-man leadership of the lord high admiral. Since 1869 the Admiralty has been headed by the first lord admiral, a naval minister to whom the admiralty council, made up of the highest naval officers, is subordinate.

REFERENCES

Sashonko, V. N. Admiralteistvo. Leningrad, 1965.
Siniaver, M. M. Admiralteistvo. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948 (Pamiatniki russkoi arkhitektury).
References in periodicals archive ?
In a letter dated 23 February 1808 to the Admiralty (Fig.
Glyn Williams has succinctly outlined the history of these British endeavours; the major theme that emerges is the remarkable success of Barrington and Barrow, based on their unshakeable belief in an open Polar Sea, in persuading the Admiralty to mount a series of further expeditions despite Phipps's failure to make any significant progress towards the Pole beyond the latitude reached by Chichagov only a few years earlier.
(67) The steamboat's owner sought to limit his liability against the claims of the owners of the buildings, but the Court held that "where, as here, the tort is not a maritime tort, there can be no jurisdiction in the admiralty to determine the issue of liability or that of limitation of liability." (68) In other words, the Court viewed the damaging of shore-based facilities by a ship as "not a maritime tort." The Court then concluded that the key test was whether the tort in question was a maritime tort--whether the incident occurred on navigable waters and had a nexus to maritime activity--and that the Limitation Act could not be invoked if admiralty jurisdiction were not otherwise established.
A lovely example is the beginning of a letter to William Hamilton, chief secretary of the naval department of the Admiralty, in 1853: Sir, I beg to express to you my thanks for the courteous terms in which the reply of the Board of Adm to my letter of the 13th inst.
On July 4, the convoy's escorting battleships and cruiser squadron were ordered by the Admiralty to leave at speed.
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First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill's answer to the dilemma on the Western Front--90,000 casualties in five months--was a scenario taken from Boy's Own Adventure.
He'll also describe how Churchill's time at the Admiralty was characterised by his hands-on meddling.
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(10) This duty requires that the admiralty judges declare the governing principles of maritime law.
Indeed, the experience gained from efforts to extend admiralty jurisdiction to the Great Lakes, both before and after Confederation, and reactions to those efforts in Great Britain and Canada influenced the shape of the debate that ensued prior to the selection of the Exchequer Court of Canada as the admiralty court.
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