Esfahan

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Esfahan

(ĕsfähän`) or

Isfahan

(ĭs`fəhän), anc. Aspadana, city (1991 pop. 1,127,030), capital of Esfahan prov., central Iran, on the Zayandeh River. The city is located on a high plain at the foot of the Zagros Mts., where the nearby peaks are c.1,400 ft (430 m) high. The Zayandeh River flows from the High Zagros to water an oasis, a large fertile plain c.20 mi (32 km) wide and 40 mi (64 km) long. An ancient and picturesque city, rich in history, Esfahan has long been known for its fine carpets, hand-printed textiles, and metalwork, chiefly silver filigree. It has modern textile and steel mills and oil refineries. A noteworthy city in Sassanid times, Esfahan passed to the Arabs in the mid-7th cent. and served as a provincial capital. In the 11th cent. it was captured by the Seljuk Turks, who made it (1051) the capital of their empire. In the early 13th cent. Esfahan was taken by the Mongols. Timur conquered the city in 1388 and, after its inhabitants rebelled, slaughtered c.70,000 persons in revenge; it is said that he built a large hill with the skulls of the dead. Under Shah Abbas I, who made (1598) Esfahan his capital, the city was embellished with many fine buildings—notably the beautiful imperial mosque, one of the masterpieces of world architecture; the lovely Lutfullah mosque; and a great royal palace. Shah Abbas founded the Julfa quarter, located across the Zayandeh River, by transferring Armenians from N Persia to that section. At its zenith, under the Safavid dynasty in the 17th cent., Esfahan had a population of c.600,000, making it one of the world's great cities of the time. However, the city declined rapidly after it was captured (1723) by the Afghans, who massacred most of its inhabitants. Russian troops occupied Esfahan in 1916. The city is the site of the Univ. of Esfahan. The name also appears as Ispahan.

Isfahan

, Eşfahan
a city in central Iran: the second largest city in the country; capital of Persia in the 11th century and from 1598 to 1722. Pop.: 1 547 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
According to our findings, the City of Isfahan is an important area with high CL infection rate in Isfahan Province and even in Iran.
A symposium examining the religious, linguistic and ethnic identities of the city of Isfahan, the capital city of the Safavid Empire in 17th-century Persia, will be held Monday at the J.
Today the Iranian Navy is making relentless efforts in compliance with the orders of the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei), and is not afraid of any threat when defending the country's sea borders," Admiral Sayyari said on Saturday, addressing a ceremony in the city of Isfahan in Central Iran.
24 (ANI): Iranian security forces violently suppressed opposition supporters in the city of Isfahan yesterday as tensions increased before nationwide demonstrations planned for this weekend.
The rise in consumption is lower than the rise in production," Ahmadinejad told a meeting in the city of Isfahan of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries' (OPEC's).
The Iranian pilgrims will be safe as security has been maintained along the routes that they will go through (across the border to reach Karbala in Southern Iraq); a large number of law enforcement forces are stationed along the country's borders to provide services to the Iranian pilgrims," General Ashtari said, addressing a ceremony in the city of Isfahan, Central Iran.