T. S. Eliot

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Eliot, T. S.

(Thomas Stearns Eliot), 1888–1965, American-British poet and critic, b. St. Louis, Mo. One of the most distinguished literary figures of the 20th cent., T. S. Eliot won the 1948 Nobel Prize in Literature. He studied at Harvard, the Sorbonne, and Oxford. In 1914 he established residence in London and in 1927 became a British subject. After working as a teacher and a bank clerk he began a publishing career; he was assistant editor of the Egoist (1917–19) and edited his own quarterly, the Criterion (1922–39). In 1925 he was employed by the publishing house of Faber and Faber, eventually becoming one of its directors. His first marriage, to Vivienne Haigh-Wood in 1915, was troubled, and ended with their separation in 1933. His subsequent marriage to Valerie Fletcher in 1957 was far more successful.

Eliot's early poetical works—Prufrock and Other Observations (1917), Poems (1920), and The Waste Land (1922)—express the anguish and barrenness of modern life and the isolation of the individual, particularly as reflected in the failure of love. The Waste Land, whose published version reflects extraordinary editing by Eliot's friend Ezra PoundPound, Ezra Loomis,
1885–1972, American poet, critic, and translator, b. Hailey, Idaho, grad. Hamilton College, 1905, M.A. Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1906. An extremely important influence in the shaping of 20th-century poetry, he was one of the most famous and controversial
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, compelled immediate critical attention. His complex early poems, employing myths, religious symbolism, and literary allusion, signified a break with 19th-century poetic traditions. Their models were the metaphysical poetsmetaphysical poets,
name given to a group of English lyric poets of the 17th cent. The term was first used by Samuel Johnson (1744). The hallmark of their poetry is the metaphysical conceit (a figure of speech that employs unusual and paradoxical images), a reliance on
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, DanteDante Alighieri
, 1265–1321, Italian poet, b. Florence. Dante was the author of the Divine Comedy, one of the greatest of literary classics. Life
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, the Jacobean dramatists, and French symbolistssymbolists,
in literature, a school originating in France toward the end of the 19th cent. in reaction to the naturalism and realism of the period. Designed to convey impressions by suggestion rather than by direct statement, symbolism found its first expression in poetry but
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. Their meter ranged from the lyrical to the conversational. In his later poetry, notably Ash Wednesday (1930) and the Four Quartets (1935–42), Eliot turned from spiritual desolation to hope for human salvation. He accepted religious faith as a solution to the human dilemma and espoused Anglo-Catholicism in 1927.

Eliot was an extraordinarily influential critic, rejecting Romantic notions of unfettered originality and arguing for the impersonality of great art. His later criticism attempts to support Christian culture against what he saw as the empty and fragmented values of secularism. His outstanding critical works are contained in such volumes as The Sacred Wood (1920), For Lancelot Andrewes (1928), Selected Essays, 1917–1932 (1932), The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism (1933), Elizabethan Essays (1934), Essays Ancient and Modern (1936), and Notes towards a Definition of Culture (1948). Eliot's plays attempt to revitalize verse drama and usually treat the same themes as in his poetry. They include Murder in the Cathedral (1935), dealing with the final hours of Thomas à BecketThomas à Becket, Saint,
or Saint Thomas Becket,
1118–70, English martyr, archbishop of Canterbury, b. London. He is called St. Thomas of Canterbury and occasionally St. Thomas of London.
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; The Family Reunion (1939); The Cocktail Party (1950); The Confidential Clerk (1954); and The Elder Statesman (1959). His complete poems and plays appeared in 1969, his letters in 1988, and his previously unpublished early poems (1909–17) in 1996.

Bibliography

See R. Schuchard, ed., The Complete Prose of T. S. Eliot: The Critical Edition (4 vol., 2014–); V. Eliot (his second wife) et al., ed., The Letters of T. S. Eliot (3 vol., 2009–); biographies by B. Bergonzi (1971), P. Ackroyd (1984), L. Gordon (rev. ed. 1999), and C. Raine (2006); R. Crawford, Young Eliot (2015); studies by D. E. Jones (1960), E. M. Browne (1969), J. D. Margolis (1972), A. W. Litz (1973), E. Schneider (1975), C. Bedient (1987), J. Olney (1988), A. Julius (1996), D. Donoghue (2000), and C. Raine (2011); bibliographies by D. Gallup (rev. ed. 1969) and B. Ricks (1980); biography of Vivienne Eliot (2002) by C. Seymour-Jones.

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Eliot, T. S. (Thomas Stearns)

(1888–1965) poet, critic, playwright, editor; born in St. Louis, Mo. Descended from an old Massachusetts and Unitarian family, he studied philosophy at Harvard (B.A. 1909; M.A. 1910), the Sorbonne (1910–11), and Oxford (1914–15). He remained a permanent resident of England but made occasional visits to the U.S.A. He took British citizenship in 1927, the same year he joined the Church of England and embraced Anglo-Catholicism. While teaching school in England (1915–17) and working as a bank clerk (1919–22), he reviewed books and was an editor of the literary magazine the Egoist (1917–19) and a founder-editor of the Criterion (1922–39). His main career was as an editor at the English publishing firm, Faber and Faber (1926–65), in which capacity he discovered and supported many modern writers. Although in some respects out of step with his century—being deeply religious and conservative, antisecular and antiromantic—he had an astonishing impact on his times. His literary criticism, in such works as The Sacred Wood (1920) and Homage to John Dryden (1924), set forth the literary tastes of a whole generation, while his own early poetry, such as Prufrock and Other Observations (1917) and "The Wasteland" (1922), virtually defined an era; later poems, such as Four Quartets (1935–42), although greatly admired, spoke to a smaller public; although several dealt with esoteric themes, his verse plays, such as Murder in the Cathedral (1935) and The Cocktail Party (1950), proved to be surprisingly popular. He personally remained aloof from most public events and political developments, but in 1948 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature, formal recognition of his widespread influence.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.
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