green revolution

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Green Revolution,

term referring mainly to dramatic increases in cereal-grain yields in many developing countries beginning in the late 1960s, due largely to use of genetically improved varieties. Beginning in the mid-1940s in Mexico researchers led by American Norman E. BorlaugBorlaug, Norman Ernest
, 1914–2009, U.S. agronomist, b. near Saude, Iowa, grad. Univ. of Minn. (Ph.D., 1942). He worked as researcher with the E. I. du Pont Company until 1944, when he joined the Rockefeller Foundation in Mexico.
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 developed broadly adapted, short-stemmed, disease-resistant wheats that excelled at converting fertilizer and water into high yields. The improved seeds were instrumental in boosting Mexican wheat production and averting famine in India and Pakistan, earning Borlaug the 1970 Nobel Peace Prize. Significant though less dramatic improvements followed in corn. The Mexican program inspired a similarly successful rice-research effort in the Philippines and a network of research centers dedicated to the important food crops and environments of the developing world. More recent research has sought to respond to criticism that the Green Revolution depends on fertilizers, irrigation, and other factors that poor farmers cannot afford and that may be ecologically harmful; and that it promotes monocultures and loss of genetic diversity.

green revolution

the introduction of new species of crops and new techniques leading to greater crop yields. This began in Mexico in the 1950s, and from the mid-1960s new high-yielding varieties of rice and wheat were introduced in many THIRD WORLD countries. The most noticeable applications were in the Indian subcontinent where new strains of rice enabled double-cropping, eliminating a fallow period in the agricultural cycle. For a while these innovations were seen by many as solving food-supply problems. However, new problems arose, one of the most significant being that the new strains require heavy inputs of fertilizer, pesticides and machinery For Third World countries, these can be very expensive imports, and small farmers have been unable to gain access to the credit financing necessary for full advantage to be taken. Generally a p rocess of increasing impoverishment of poor farmers has resulted, with increasing income inequalities, a concentration of landholding and variable increases in food supplies. As Griffin (1979) points out, this was an example of a technological fix approach based on assumptions that technical solutions can operate independently of the institutional environment. He sums up by saying ‘the story of the green revolution is the story of a revolution that failed’. see also INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY.
References in periodicals archive ?
(1970) The Green Revolution; Second Generation Problems.
But Carlson is not the lone voice to be raised against the Green Revolution.
It may be interesting to note that the above conclusions imply that the Green Revolution has made some positive contributions to the nature or quality of land distribution in Pakistan.
The fundamental premiss of this paper is that during the Green Revolution period, as the farmer had more marketable surplus in his hand, he made greater efforts to secure his desired price.
Borlaug's impact on India 's science and economy went much beyond the Green Revolution. A science-based approach to the problems of agriculture was a fundamental tenet of his thinking and the success of the Green Revolution spawned other successful interventions in areas such as animal husbandry, dairying and agriculture.
Khan is an ardent supporter of the currently prevalent views about the adverse effects of the Green Revolution in t Pakistan-views which were challenged and negated by me in my article--he, perhaps because of his preoccupation with his own opinions, overlooked the empirical evidence advanced by me (1) and in places even distorted my arguments.
Swaminathan to increase production of food grains in the country, the Commerce Minister said that as a consequence of the Green Revolution, India became self-reliant in food production in about 15 years.
The Green Revolution is estimated to have saved up to one billion people from starvation.
The second area highlighted by Narayanan was the achievement of the green revolution leading to self sufficiency in our food requirements.
The downside of the Green Revolution, as we now know, was that these new plants needed higher inputs of, water, chemical fertilizers and insecticides, which have had serious impacts on the biosphere.
There is hardly a limit to the number of books and articles that have been written and published by scholars on the green revolution in India that did not take place.
Toxic Tears: The Darker Side of the Green Revolution (2011)