Green party

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Green party,

any of the political parties established in various countries to oppose the destructive environmental effects of many modern technologies and the economic systems and institutions that drive them. Many Green parties also advocate pacifismpacifism,
advocacy of opposition to war through individual or collective action against militarism. Although complete, enduring peace is the goal of all pacifism, the methods of achieving it differ.
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 and strongly support human rightshuman rights,
universal rights held to belong to individuals by virtue of their being human, encompassing civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights and freedoms, and based on the notion of personal human dignity and worth.
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; the parties are typically grassroots leftist in their political orientation.

There are numerous Green parties in Europe. In 2003 the European Federation of Green Parties established the European Green party, in part in order to campaign on a common platform in EU elections; 50 parties are now members of the European Green party. The German Green party, founded in West Germany in 1979, had some political successes in the 1980s and merged with a group from the former East Germany in 1993. In 1994 it outpolled the Free Democrats, previously Germany's third largest party; it again was the third largest party in 1998, when it first entered the government in a sometimes strained coalition with the Social Democrats, and in 2002, when it also became part of the governing coalition. Subsequently, it has not been in a national government or placed as high, relatively speaking, though it has continued to win roughly the same number of seats or more. Green parties in several other European nations have been part of coalition governments including in France (1997–2002, 2012–14), the Irish Republic (2007–11), and Iceland (2017–).

A U.S. group has existed since 1973; the Green party of the United States was officially formed in 2001 from the Association of State Green Parties. There are 43 state organizations affiliated with the national confederation. Ralph NaderNader, Ralph
, 1934–, U.S. consumer advocate and political reformer, b. Winsted, Conn. Admitted to the bar in 1958, he practiced law in Connecticut and was a lecturer (1961–63) in history and government at the Univ. of Hartford.
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 was the Green party's presidential candidate in 1996 and 2000, and in the latter election the party garnered the largest vote (2.6%) of any U.S. third party. In subsequent presidential campaigns the party's candidates have been much less successful.

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References in classic literature ?
Will you possess unfading peace and joy, and the grateful love of all the green earth's fragrant children?
'Mong the green trees was it whispered, And the bright waves bore it on To the lonely forest flowers, Where the glad news had not gone.
"Billina has hatched out thirteen new chickens," replied the Soldier with the Green Whiskers, "and they're the cutest little fluffy yellow balls you ever saw.
All eyes had been upon the figures of the girl and their jeddak, and loud was the hideous laughter that rang out in appreciation of the wit of the green emperor's reply to his prisoner's appeal for liberty.
Carthoris had covered about half the distance between the forest and the green warriors, when a new factor succeeded in still further directing the attention of the latter from him.
A hundred yards to my right was the gate from which the troops were evidently expected to issue, but to reach it I must pass the flank of the green warriors within easy sight of them, and, fearing that my plan to warn the Kaolians might thus be thwarted, I decided upon hastening toward the left, where another gate a mile away would give me ingress to the city.
I knew that the word I brought would prove a splendid passport to Kaol, and I must admit that my caution was due more to my ardent desire to make my way into the city than to avoid a brush with the green men.
Then the green man fitted spectacles for the Scarecrow and the Tin Woodman and the Lion, and even on little Toto; and all were locked fast with the key.
Swift as I was I was none too soon, for the green warrior had been overtaken ere he had made half the distance to the forest, and now he stood with his back to a boulder, while the herd, temporarily balked, hissed and screeched about him.
As the Green Man entered, Daddy Mathieu had started violently; but visibly mastering himself he said:
Whether they had discovered us or simply were looking at the deserted city I could not say, but in any event they received a rude reception, for suddenly and without warning the green Martian warriors fired a terrific volley from the windows of the buildings facing the little valley across which the great ships were so peacefully advancing.
The Soldier with the Green Whiskers looked at Jack with much care and curiosity.