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Spectator, English daily periodical published jointly by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele with occasional contributions from other writers. It succeeded the Tatler, a periodical begun by Steele on Apr. 12, 1709, under the pseudonym Isaac Bickerstaff. The Tatler appeared twice weekly until it ended Jan. 2, 1711. The Spectator began Mar. 1, 1711, appearing as a daily, and lasted until Dec. 6, 1712. Valuable as social history, the papers (dated from various London coffeehouses) provide an excellent commentary on the manners, morals, and literature of the day. The Spectator was supposedly written by members of a small club, representing figures of the British middle class: Sir Roger de Coverley (country gentry), Captain Sentry (military), Sir Andrew Freeport (commerce), Will Honeycomb (town), and Mr. Spectator himself. Addison joined Steele in writing the Tatler and continued his collaboration with him, writing about the same number of articles, in the Spectator. Both periodicals had a tremendous influence on public opinion and gave great impetus to the growth of journalism and periodical writing. The Spectator, which was succeeded by the Guardian, was revived for a time by Addison in 1714.


See edition of the Spectator by G. Smith (1945); studies by G. S. Streatfeild (1923) and R. P. Bond (1971).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a British weekly journal of conservative orientation. Published in London since 1828, Spectator deals with political, economic, and cultural issues. Circulation, more than 30,000 (1975).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
It was after the Spectator ceased that Addison published his tragedy called Cato.
"The spectator's gallery to enable family/friends to watch children ice skating on Sundays has for the first time in over 20 years refused anyone to sit and watch from the gallery," she said.
Inzamam ul Haq had a fight with the spectator (1997, Pakistan-India match, Toronto) when a spectator repeatedly called him potato on a megaphone.
In 1955, film scholars Raymond Borde and Etienne Chaumeton contended that the aim of film noir was for the spectator to experience the same 'anguish and insecurity' as the protagonist does.
Although the spectator's punch missed Resendez's head, the referee stopped the fight, allowing Pagan to recover for a while.
Instead, Kant approaches the question of the nature of genius indirectly, through an analysis of the spectator's interaction with beautiful artworks.
covering loss or damage to buildings and/or equipment, business interruption, etc.) in the case of a sporting event to which an event organiser charges an admission, the event organiser is entitled to impose conditions of entry as part of its contractual agreement with the spectator and the spectator is entitled to expect that the event will take place as promised by the organiser.
The concept -- thought up by Haraki -- sees the spectator become active.
The spectator seating area consists of three levels aimed at providing very clear vision to the pitch, and a canopy of hard cloth and steel mesh protects spectators from sunlight and rains.
For the spectator, this brief but revealing glimpse into the humanity of a performer can have profound emotional and psychological effects, bringing them both into a communal experience rarely bestowed by conventional theater.
Francesco Casetti's first theoretical step on the way to his conception of cinematographic enunciation is the definition of the spectator, a true "nodal point located at the intersection of numerous, complex and diverse paths.