Statue of Liberty

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Liberty, Statue of,

statue on Liberty Island in Upper New York Bay, commanding the entrance to New York City. Liberty Island, c.10 acres (4 hectares), formerly Bedloe's Island (renamed in 1956), was the former site of a quarantine station and harbor fortifications. The statue, originally known as Liberty Enlightening the World, was proposed by the French historian Édouard Laboulaye in 1865 to commemorate the alliance of France with the American colonies during the American Revolution and, according to scholars, was originally intended as an antimonarchy and antislavery symbol. Funds were raised by the Franco-American Union (est. 1875), and the statue was designed by the French sculptor F. A. BartholdiBartholdi, Frédéric Auguste
, 1834–1904, French sculptor, b. Colmar, Alsace. He studied painting under Ary Scheffer but turned to sculpture. Among his many works is a colossal group, Switzerland Succoring Strasbourg,
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 in the form of a woman with an uplifted arm holding a torch. The world's tallest metal statue when it was made, 151 ft (46 m) in height, it was constructed of copper sheets, using Bartholdi's 9-ft (2.7-m) model. It was shipped to New York City in 1885, assembled, and dedicated in 1886.

The base of the statue is an 11-pointed star, part of old Fort Wood; a 154-ft (47-m) pedestal, built through American funding, is made of concrete faced with granite. On it is a tablet, affixed in 1903, inscribed with "The New Colossus," the famous sonnet of Emma Lazarus, welcoming immigrants to the United States. By the early 20th cent, this greeting to the arriving stranger had become the statue's primary symbolic message. Broadening in its meaning, the statue became a symbol of America during World War I and a ubiquitous democratic symbol during World War II. An elevator runs to the top of the pedestal, and steps within the statue lead to the crown. The statue was extensively refurbished prior to its centennial celebration in 1986. The Statue of Liberty became a national monument in 1924. In 1965, Ellis IslandEllis Island,
island, c.27 acres (10.9 hectares), in Upper New York Bay, SW of Manhattan island. Government-controlled since 1808, it was long the site of an arsenal and a fort, but most famously served (1892–1954) as the chief immigration station of the United States.
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, the entrance point of millions of immigrants to the United States, was added to the monument.

Bibliography

See M. Trachtenberg, The Statue of Liberty (1976); W. S. Dillon, ed., The Statue of Liberty Revisited (1994); B. Moreno, The Statue of Liberty Encyclopedia (2000); Y. S. Khan, Enlightening the World: The Creation of the Statue of Liberty (2010); E. Mitchell, Liberty's Torch: The Great Adventure to Build the Statue of Liberty (2014).

Statue of Liberty

great symbolic structure in New York harbor. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 284]
See: America

Statue of Liberty

perhaps the most famous monument to independence. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 284]
See: Freedom
References in periodicals archive ?
Today I am proud to announce that New York State will keep the Statue of Liberty open.
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Every detail has been thoughtfully incorporated to complement and respect the Statue of Liberty and Liberty Island.
On July 4, 1987, an 85-foot fax composed of statements, poems, and drawings about "What makes America Great" was sent to the White house from a yacht cruising in front of the Statue of Liberty.
On the second day, after a hot breakfast buffet, the group will continue to nearby Liberty Park to board the ferry for the Ellis Island National Monument and the Statue of Liberty.
Operating from a phoney New York real estate office, he forged impressive documents to show that he was the legal owner of properties such as the Statue of Liberty, Madison Square Garden, the Metropolitan Museum of Art and General Grant's Tomb.
A Filipino villager walks past a replica of the Statue of Liberty in Antipolo City, east of Manila yesterday.
NEW YORK -- Where once she welcomed immigrants pursuing the American dream and more recently hordes of tourists, the Statue of Liberty stood alone Tuesday, victim of the US government shutdown.
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Summary: New York: The Statue of Liberty will reopen by July 4 once repairs to extensive .