Theobroma


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Related to Theobroma: Theobroma cacao

Theobroma

 

a genus of evergreen trees of the family Stercu-liaceae. The plants are found in the lower layer of tropical rain forests in Central and South America. The leaves are simple and entire. The inflorescences of small pentamerous bisexual flowers are characterized by cauliflory—that is, they develop on short shoots on the trunk and large branches. The ovate or elongate fruit has numerous seeds. The fruit of many species has edible pulp, and the seeds are used to produce cocoa and chocolate.

The species having the greatest economic significance is the chocolate tree, or cacao (T. cacao), which is 4–8 m tall. The yellow, orange, or reddish fruits reach 30 cm in length and 10–12 cm in diameter; they weigh 300–600 g and contain 25 to 60 seeds. The chocolate tree has been cultivated since ancient times in many tropical countries. Optimum conditions for its cultivation are a uniform annual precipitation of 2,000–5,000 mm and a mean annual temperature no lower than 21°C. The chocolate tree is propagated by seeds, cuttings, or grafts. It begins to bear fruit in the fourth or fifth year and attains peak productivity in the tenth year. The plant may be grown successfully in hothouses.

REFERENCES

Siniagin, I. I. Tropicheskoe zemledelie. Moscow, 1968.
Zhukovskii, P. M. Kul’tumye rasteniia i ikh sorodichi, 3rd ed. Leningrad, 1971.

S. S. MORSHCHIKHINA

References in periodicals archive ?
GUTIERREZ, M.; GOMEZ, R..; RODRIGUEZ, N.Comportamiento del crecimiento de plantulas de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), en vivero, sembradas en diferentes volumenes de sustrato.
'Regalo de Dios" clon de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) tolerante a Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par, para la renovacion de las zonas cacaoteras de Mexico.
The nine microsatellite loci used in the current study have shown high molecular genetic variation levels, thus confirming the high genetic information content in these markers presented in other studies about the genetic parameters of Theobroma species populations, as described by Lemes, Martiniano, Reis, Faria, & Gribel (2007).
Only the extract of the beans of Theobroma cacao contained all the investigated classes of secondary metabolites.
Therefore, it can be concluded that the activated carbons obtained at low temperature from the cocoa shell (Theobroma cacao) are a viable biomaterial for removal of amoxicillin in aqueous solution.
Cacao (not to be confused with cocoa) is a raw, unprocessed form of chocolate that comes from the Theobroma cacao tree.
Top-billing the list of products to be showcased in the 'house' is her beauty line 'Raquel' with products such as Cacao Lava and Theobroma Oil.