Pierre Étienne Théodore Rousseau

(redirected from Theodore Rousseau)
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Rousseau, Pierre Étienne Théodore


Born Apr. 15, 1812, in Paris; died Dec. 22, 1867, in Barbizon, Seine-et-Marne Department. French painter and graphic artist; a leader of the Barbizon school.

The formation of Rousseau’s style was based primarily on the artist’s independent study of such painters as J. van Ruysdael, J. Constable, and G. Michel. He settled in Barbizon in the mid-1830’s. Rousseau strove to be, in his own words, an “artist of his homeland,” revealing in a profoundly democratic manner the specific features of France’s rural and wild landscapes. This striving is evident in his early works (Environs of Granville, 1833, Hermitage, Leningrad) and, especially, in his mature works, which were executed in Barbizon and during the artist’s frequent trips throughout France.

Rousseau’s works are generally marked by a balanced composition, with a closed middle section created by accentuating the center of the composition. His palette was restrained, yet he convincingly rendered the materiality of objects. Subtly depicting the various states of nature and the ambience of light and air, Rousseau in many ways contributed to the development of plein-air painting. His works include The Market in Normandy (c. 1832, Hermitage, Leningrad), Avenue of Chestnut Trees (1837, Louvre, Paris), The Marsh in the Landes (1852, Louvre), The Oaks (1852, Louvre), and Barbizon Landscape (A. S. Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow).

Rousseau is also known for his drawings and etchings.


lavorskaia, N. V. Peizazh Barbizonskoi shkoly. Moscow, 1962. Pages 91–130.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Fournier reflects that whereas 10 years ago there was enthusiasm among both French and American collectors for Romantic landscape painters such as Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes, Georges Michel and the young Theodore Rousseau, today works by these artists fetch a tenth of the price (3,000 [euro] rather than 30,000 [euro], he suggests).
Drawings by several of the key Barbizon artists are on view, including "Nude Reclining in a Landscape" (1845) by Jean-Francois Millet and "Sunset from the Forest of Fontainebleau" (1850) by Theodore Rousseau.
Examples by such artists as Francois Boucher, Vincent van Gogh, Claude Lorrain, Camille Pissarro, Theodore Rousseau and Georges Seurat are included.
The oldest works, including those by Theodore Rousseau and dating to 1832, depict a wild river with sandy banks surrounded by greenery.
One of the most interesting chapters is "The Counterrevolutionary Origins of Photography and Modern Landscape Painting" which examines the careers of Niepce, Daguerre and Talbot alongside a discussion of the landscape theories of Valenciennes and Deperthes and the development of the Barbizon School, exemplified particularly in the works of Corot and Theodore Rousseau. This chapter examines the important role of the panorama and diorama in visual culture of the period and especially the influence of its objectives and effects on landscape painting.
8, "The Impressionist Landscape from Corot to Van Gogh." The exhibit features 34 paintings by the masters of 19th-century French painting, beginning with Barbizon School painters Camille Corot and Theodore Rousseau, and continuing through to the Impressionists and post-Impressionists, Eugene Boudin, Paul Cezanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent Van Gogh, Claude Monet and Pierre-Auguste Renoir.
By Millet's fellow Barbizonian, Theodore Rousseau, there is a view of the Auvergne, curiously detailed for such a panoramic scene.
Writing on Tillmans, Paul praises his images of "individuality as a meaningful way to achieve emancipation from the commodity culture of advanced capitalism." We learn that "Still Life," by way of a Mellon grant and a Theodore Rousseau Graduate Student internship, grew out of a research paper Paul wrote for a seminar on "Queer Theory" that compared Tillmans to (who else?) Nan Goldin, the Old Master of glossy alternative-lifestyle photography.
In the Loire Valley, Tilleray writes of Gargilesse-Dampierre beside the River Indres: "The beauty of the village, clustered around the chateau and the church, inspired not only George Sand but also Claud Monet, Theodore Rousseau and Henry James, who all settled in Gargilesse for a while.
In 1867 the deaths of Baudelaire and of Theodore Rousseau lead him, as a writer of obituaries, to reflect ironically on his role as literary undertaker (3824; 3889), one he was to play incessantly in the coming years (taking up his pen to commemorate the passing of Lamartine, Berlioz, and Louis Bouilhet, for example, in 1869).
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