She lit them at the same moment, and let them burn down until she saw which one lasted longest [so as to find outi to which of these saints she should make her vow most efficaciously." Saints sometimes worked posthumous vindictive miracles, as in 11th century Germany when a man being savaged by a robber-knight begged for mercy in the name of St.
of Orleans's Capitula connects the penitential fast of Lent with baptism; just as penance cleanses the soul of earlier misdeeds (thus rendering the individual fit to receive the Eucharist at Easter), baptism washes the soul--even the cannibal soul--free of the sins committed in the individual's prior life.
(30.) Alcuin's loss of stature is usually extrapolated from his bitter and unsuccessful struggle with Theodulf
of Orleans over the fate of a runaway cleric who had claimed refuge in Tours (see Rob Meens, "Sanctuary, Penance, and Dispute Settlement under Charlemagne: The Conflict between Alcuin and Theodulf
of Orleans over a Sinful Cleric," Speculum 82, 2007, 277-300).
of Orleans repeats this in relation to fasts established to reduce drunkenness at vigils of great feasts like Christmas, c.
His thesis is that the extant examples of the Bibles of Theodulf
, the Bibles from Tours, the Carolingian Gift Bibles, the Bibles of Charles the Bald, and the Codex Amiatinus, which he describes in rich detail, were preserved over time because they were never used as Bibles but were considered luxurious works of art.
Alcuin asks Charlemagne to send Felix of Urgel's most recent exposition of his doctrine to Pope Leo III, Paulinus of Aquileia, Ricbod of Trier, and Theodulf
Rosamond McKitterick discusses the relative importance of the versions of the biblical text associated with Alcuin and Tours on the one hand and Theodulf
of Orleans on the other and the extent to which Alcuin's text influenced places other than Tours.
At about the same time, a number of well-connected bishops, Haito of Hasel, Ghaerbald of Liege, and Theodulf
of Orleans, issued the earliest of the episcopal statutes.