She lit them at the same moment, and let them burn down until she saw which one lasted longest [so as to find outi to which of these saints she should make her vow most efficaciously.
of Orleans repeats this in relation to fasts established to reduce drunkenness at vigils of great feasts like Christmas, c.
His thesis is that the extant examples of the Bibles of Theodulf
, the Bibles from Tours, the Carolingian Gift Bibles, the Bibles of Charles the Bald, and the Codex Amiatinus, which he describes in rich detail, were preserved over time because they were never used as Bibles but were considered luxurious works of art.
The final chapters are devoted to questions of reception: of Priscian in the De orthographia, of Ambrose in the context of his anti-heretical polemic, and of Ovid more generally in the Carolingian context (in the work of Theodulf
of Orleans, Paul the Deacon, and in the Ovidian glosses -- but very little in Alcuin).
At about the same time, a number of well-connected bishops, Haito of Hasel, Ghaerbald of Liege, and Theodulf
of Orleans, issued the earliest of the episcopal statutes.
11) The riddles I quote all appear in manuscripts of the fourteenth century and later, when such riddles are fairly widespread; but the principle of graphic riddles can be documented from Carolingian poetry to later Anglo-Norman collections: for example from a handful of riddles by Alcuin, to Theodulf of Orleans's vituperative play on the small difference between Scottus and sottus, to some of the riddles in a single, small list of riddles in an English manuscript dated to the mid-eleventh century (Cambridge University Library, MS Gg.
For example, in the ninth century Theodulf of Orleans commented vituperatively on the tiny difference between `scots' and `sots': `Quae [littera] sonar in "caelo" prima, et quae in "scando" secunda .
A similar reasoning was at work in Theodulf
of Orleans' decision to abolish the privilege of clerics to live with female family members: "Let no woman live with a presbyter in a single house.
It is not until the Carolingian period that evidence begins to emerge of bishops such as Theodulf
of Orleans (d.
Chazelle offers a useful synopsis of the Opus Caroli regis, now attributed to Theodulf
of Orleans, from the perspective of its "theological 'logic,' its Christocentric foundation and the function it assigns to the Crucifixion.