For an increase in thermal radiation generates more heat in nanofluid which tends to stimulated higher temperature and thicker thermal boundary layer
thickness which is more pronounced in the second solution to the first solution.
The flow created by the vortex generators will disturb the thermal boundary layer
on the heat transfer surface which is the reason for heat transfer augmentation.
The passive technique is the installation of the vortex generator or turbulator into the heating system to generate the vortex flow and to disturb the thermal boundary layer
on the heat transfer surface.
Plateau of the intensity in the Region A indicates lower temperature region at where the radiation from soot particle was not observed (lower than 1600K and decreased to the wall surface temperature.) Total length of Region A and B was consistent with the thermal boundary layer
thickness by other researchers .
[alpha] - effective thermal diffusivity, [m.sup.2]/s; [beta] - coefficient of thermal expansion, [.sup.[degrees]][C.sup.-1]; [[delta].sub.T] - thermal boundary layer
thickness, m; [theta] - dimensionless temperature defined in Eq.
The thickness of CBL in another time has approached or exceeded 3,000 m except for the cloudy or rainy days which affect the development of thermal boundary layer
, and SBL was also significant.
This causes an increase in the temperature of the fluid, but on the contrary, the heat transfer rate reduces within the thermal boundary layer
as shown in Figure 9.
In another theoretical study on combined effects of Newtonian heating and viscous dissipation parameter on boundary layer flow of copper and titania in water over stretchable wall, Makinde  reported an increase in the moving plate surface temperature and thermal boundary layer
Due to flow non- uniformities in transition region, the thermal entrance region length can only be determined experimentally by measuring the temperature distribution along the thermal boundary layer
. Empirical correlations are available for calculating Nusselt number in laminar and turbulent region under the influence of many factors such as pressure drop, different types of inlet configurations and entrance region.
On thermal boundary layer
on a power law stretched surface with suction or injection.
This indicates that the velocity distribution is a fully developed turbulent flow which is not much influenced by the thermal boundary layer
around the manikin.
The risk of indirect cross infection might rise due to thermal boundary layer
of the target manikin, which can entrain the polluted air from the lower part of the room.