where [[lambda].sub.c], [[lambda].sub.m], and [[lambda].sub.f] are the thermal conductivities
of the composite, matrix, and filler, respectively, and [[PHI].sub.f] is the volume fraction of filler.
In this study, the measured thermal conductivities
of several polyolefin composites separately filled with two thermal conductive particles are quoted from literature to preliminarily verify this thermal conductivity equation, such as medium density polyethylene composites, polypropylene composites, and epoxy composites.
The thermal conductivities
of Ordos sandstone has a linear relationship with the moisture content (Fig.
Reference Substances Thermal Conductivities
Effective Viscosities and Thermal Conductivities
of Aqueous Nanofluids Containing Low Volume Concentrations of Al2O3 Nanoparticles." International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 51: 26516(2008)
Furthermore, the thermal conductivities
of the composites are 209, 257, and 348 W/m x K for 3 at % W, Mo, and Ti additions, respectively.
Adjusted thermal conductivities
for premium materials are shown in TABLE 1.
In this part, we use the IIM method to solve the problem of effective thermal conductivity estimation of geomaterials whose constituent thermal conductivities
depend on temperature.
decrease practically in all ranges of densities, including specimen densification.
The effect on thermal conductivities
caused by various material physical properties, like thickness, density and methods of installation were evaluated on the test apparatus, which was based on a 3 inches (76.2 mm) heating pipe, with three heating circuits controlled for the metering area and end guards.
However, vertical BHE systems are often installed in the ground of multiple dipping layers (of rock or soil) with different thermal conductivities
. The effective thermal conductivity for stratified media is identified with average thermal conductivity.
The measurement of thermal conductivities
requires specialized instrumentation, but calculation works well for solid coatings and solventborne liquid paints.