Thermal Motion


Also found in: Wikipedia.

Thermal Motion

 

the random motion of the microparticles, such as molecules, atoms, and electrons, that constitute all bodies. Thermal motion is a special kind of motion of matter and is qualitatively different from ordinary mechanical motion, in which all parts of a body move in an orderly manner. Brownian movement is the most convincing experimental proof of thermal motion. The regularities of thermal motion are studied by means of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and physical kinetics. The kinetic energy of thermal motion is directly proportional to absolute temperature and is a component of the internal energy of a physical system.

References in periodicals archive ?
These questions revolve around the ways in which free energy extracted from macroscopic inhomogeneities of the system (in the case of a fusion plasma, from the background temperature gradient) in the form of electromagnetic fluctuations is distributed in phase space (particles' positions and momenta) so as to give rise to a chaotic, multiscale (=turbulent) state that accommodates a steady flow of energy from macro to micro scales and its return to its inevitable resting place in the form of the thermal motion of the particles.
The Ultracentrifuges market is witnessing a number of innovative technological improvements in recent times, which enable programming, automation known to display random thermal motion, they are not affected by the earth's gravitational pull.
The temperature is higher, and the thermal motion of atoms is more intense, but the evolution process of vacancies is not obvious.
The radial velocity has two components, the radial flow velocity and the velocity due to the random thermal motion of the particles constituting the intermediate fireball.
However, the traditional neutron moderation theory of modern physics of nuclear reactors due to lack of alternative except for computer simulations, is based on the above analytical solution of the kinematic problem of elastic neutron scattering on a nucleus, which is obtained for the case when the nucleus scattering rests in the "L"--system, that is the traditional theory of neutron moderation neglects the thermal motion of nuclei of the moderating medium, which is physically acceptable, if we assume that the kinetic energies of moderated neutrons are much higher than the energies of thermal motion of the nuclei.
The clumps are smaller than what you might predict if you simply pit gravity's inward pull against the thermal motion of gas molecules.
In the H/U melt, the molecular thermal motion drove the chain diffusion between HDPE and UHMWPE.
This state has considerable potential for quantum computing applications because of new features in matter systems free from thermal motion.
Bashirov (physics, Kazan Federal U., Russia) presents an advanced theoretical approach to describing the spectroscopic study of the classical local thermal motion of small molecules and molecular fragments in crystals.
They used tiny semiconducting crystals that contain two separate reservoirs of electrons to explore the different influences of both classical and quantum physics."We found that the motion of the crystals is not dominated by something classical like thermal motion, but instead by random quantum fluctuations in the number of electrons tunneling through the barrier; the fluctuations were the size of about 10,000 electrons," says Rimberg.
In cells, random thermal motion makes DNA and other long biomolecules wriggle.
Miller and co-workers argue that it is thermal motion of the aluminum atoms that cause the disappearance of long range order.