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(thûr`mĭdôr, Fr. tĕrmēdôr`), 11th month of the French Revolutionary calendarFrench Revolutionary calendar,
the official calendar of France, Nov. 24, 1793–Dec. 31, 1805. Its introduction was decreed by the Convention on Oct. 5, 1793, but it was computed from Sept. 22, 1792, the autumnal equinox and the day after the proclamation of the republic.
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. The coup of 9 Thermidor (July 27, 1794) marked the downfall of RobespierreRobespierre, Maximilien Marie Isidore
, 1758–94, one of the leading figures of the French Revolution. Early Life

A poor youth, he was enabled to study law in Paris through a scholarship.
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 and the end of the Reign of TerrorReign of Terror,
1793–94, period of the French Revolution characterized by a wave of executions of presumed enemies of the state. Directed by the Committee of Public Safety, the Revolutionary government's Terror was essentially a war dictatorship, instituted to rule the
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. The men who came into power were members of the old bourgeoisie and the newly rich who had profited from speculation and inflation. Extravagance in dress and manner prevailed. The JacobinsJacobins
, political club of the French Revolution. Formed in 1789 by the Breton deputies to the States-General, it was reconstituted as the Society of Friends of the Constitution after the revolutionary National Assembly moved (Oct., 1789) to Paris.
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 were suppressed, but the royalists did not gain power. The Thermidorians removed economic controls, thus unleashing inflation, and established some freedom of worship. The principal figures in the so-called Thermidorian reaction included BarrasBarras, Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de
, 1755–1829, French revolutionary. Although of a noble family, he joined the Jacobins in the Revolution and was a member of the Convention.
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 and TallienTallien, Jean Lambert
, 1767–1820, French revolutionary. A law clerk and later a printer, he became known through his Jacobin journal, Ami des citoyens. A leader in the attack (Aug.
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. The period ended with the establishment of the DirectoryDirectory,
group of five men who held the executive power in France according to the constitution of the year III (1795) of the French Revolution. They were chosen by the new legislature, by the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Ancients; each year one director, chosen
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See A. Mathiez, The Thermidorian Reaction (1929, tr. 1930).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the 11th month of the year according to the republican calendar that was in effect in France from 1793 to 1805. Thermidor corresponded to the period from July 19/20 to August 17/18.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Stone, following Brinton, characterized these revolutions from above as "postrevolutionary," distinguishing them from a Thermidorian stage.
Thus, the sans-culottes riots in the spring of 1795 marked a decisive turning point in the evolution of Thermidorian justice.
(4) By implication, Desan also sides with other recent historians who interpret the thermidorian and Directory periods as an integral part of the Revolution, with some constructive achievements to their credit.
Thermidorian Reaction led to the control of a corrupt executive group known as the Directory.
The clubs disintegrated rather quickly in the weeks and months following the execution of Robespierre and the onset of the Thermidorian Reaction.
Whereas Fitzsimmons and Slavin can be read profitably at several levels, Baczko makes no attempt to provide a rounded account of the Thermidorian Reaction.
Philippe was arrested and killed himself in captivity a year later, in the summer of 1794, during the Thermidorian Reaction against the Reign of Terror.
Donlon and two veteran CEOs experienced in board issues comment on the Thermidorian period in which CEOs find themselves today.
You may remember that in the twenties and thirties there was much talk among anti-Stalinists about a "Thermidorian" reaction in the USSR.
The example of people trying to change their life by political action is by its very nature contagious, and the revival of revolutionary history - whatever the efforts of its Thermidorian chroniclers - inevitably contains an element of subversion.
(17) Leon Trotsky, "The Thermidorian Reaction," in Leon Trotsky, Stalin: An Appraisal of the Man and His Influence (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1941), 406.