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In other words, the thermodynamic activity of a certain concentration of caffeine is low in high concentrations of ethanol, resulting in lower skin permeation of caffeine from higher concentrations of ethanol solution.
Ethanol has been reported as a markedly effective skin penetration-enhancer by various mechanisms because of an increase in drug solubility, improvement in drug partitioning into the SC, modification of thermodynamic activity of drugs, solvent (ethanol) drag effect across the skin, fluidization and extraction of SC lipids, and the structure modification of SC keratin [21, 25].
where [delta]G[degrees] is the standard free energy of formation for [M.sub.x] [O.sub.y], and a is the thermodynamic activity. (9) The activity of oxygen is written as its partial pressure P(O.sub.2)
The material on bioseparations covers thermodynamic activity of biological species in aqueous solutions, molecular mass transfer in bioseparations, extraction of bioproducts, microfiltration and ultrafiltration in bioprocessing, biosepartions involving adsorption and chromatography, bioproduct crystallization, drying of bioproducts, and mechanical phase separations.
DSC and QMS measurement using Knudsen cell can be used for special applications as thermodynamic activity evaluations for metal element in alloys.
A possible explanation of the operation mode on the behavior of the studied stainless steels is given by the influence of the different alloying elements on the thermodynamic activity of the carbon in the alloyed austenite.
It has been shown that the silicon doubles the carbon's thermodynamic activity in the complex alloyed austenite with chromium and nickel.