Thermodynamic State

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Thermodynamic State

the state in which a thermodynamic system exists. Thermodynamic states are characterized by a set of macroscopic properties, which determine the internal properties of a system in that state and the interaction of the system with external bodies. These properties include temperature, pressure, volume, electric polarization, and magnetization.

Among the thermodynamic state properties there exists a specific number of independent variables, equal to the number of thermodynamic degrees of freedom of the system; the remaining variables can be expressed in terms of the independent variables. Thus, in the equation of state for an ideal gas, pV = RT, two variables—for example, temperature T and volume V —are independent, and the third, the pressure of the gas p, can be found from T and V (R is the gas constant). In thermodynamics, a distinction is made between equilibrium states and nonequilibrium states; the latter are studied in the thermodynamics of irreversible processes.

References in periodicals archive ?
Figure 2 shows the schematic of the ARS, with all of the control volumes and the eighteen points of thermodynamic state for the modeling and simulation in the steady state regime.
In exergy analysis, where the first and second laws of thermodynamics are combined, the exergy flow rate could be expressed as the coenthalpy (k) (thermodynamic state property) according to the notation of Borel [5, 19].
5) Joint retrievals of temperature and water vapor in studying the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere during record minimum sea ice extent years.
For these reasons, in this paper we propose a numerical method for mathematical modelling of a cylindrical pneumatic dissipater with a controlled flow between internal chambers where the heat transfer, energy balance, and orifice flow are taken into account and thermodynamic state of gas is updated every calculation step.
The sizes of the boxes were chosen to fit in the experimental solvent density [rho] at each thermodynamic state. The equations of motion were solved using a leapfrog Verlet algorithm, which includes a SHAKE technique to fix the diatomic bond length at [R.sub.0] = 1.284 [Angstrom] and a coupling to the thermal bath in order to keep the system temperature T close to the solvent one.
The dynamic nature of equilibrium requires an additional concept in order to describe the thermodynamic state of the system.
4,5 must have the probabilistic significance of thermodynamic state related to the current configuration of the diffusion system.
The shrink-fit barrel liners, the use of cartridge heaters, the optimized cooling system and the improved temperature control together bring about not only a considerable reduction in energy consumption but also an improvement both in the temperature control of the process section and in the entire thermodynamic state of the compounding process.
Figure 2(b) shows thermodynamic state points of the MGJT cycle for a nominal operating condition using a mixture with a molar composition of 9.1% Argon, 40.9% R14, and 50.0% R23 (Mix 001) in the JT cycle, overlaid on a pressure-enthalpy (P-h) diagram for the mixture computed using the NIST4 or SUPERTRAPP [Ely 1992] mixture database.
This idea of making a cell's state depend on that of its neighbours is tantamount to introducing a strategy for the propagation of the thermodynamic state. Although discretization here is based on continuous balance laws, we may refer to this method as that of continuous cellular automata.
The relaxed state is a thermodynamic state that is experimentally accessible via relaxation tests since, according to De Donder , such a state generalizes Duhem's metastable state.

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