Thessaly


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Thessaly

(thĕs`əlē), largest ancient region of Greece in N central Greece. It corresponded roughly to the present-day nomes of Larissa and Tríkkala, which form part of the modern region known as Thessaly. Ancient Thessaly was almost completely walled in by mountains, including Pindus, Ossa, and Othrys (now Othrís), and the plains were extremely fertile. Civilization dates from prehistoric times. Before 1000 B.C. a tribe called the Thessalians entered the area from the northwest. The chief Thessalian cities, Larissa, Crannon, and Pherae, were oligarchical. The great families were the Aleuadae (at Larissa) and the Scopadae (at Crannon). The Thessalians were powerful in the 6th cent. B.C., partly through their control of the Amphictyonic League (see amphictyonyamphictyony
, in ancient Greece, a league connected with maintaining a temple or shrine. There were a number of these, but by far the most important was the Great, or Delphic, Amphictyony (or simply the Amphictyonic League), a league originally of 12 tribes.
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). Conflict between the oligarchies, however, contributed to Thessaly's decline. Jason, the tyrant of Pherae, succeeded (374 B.C.) in uniting Thessaly, which again became a force in Greece, but it did not remain powerful for long and was subjugated (344 B.C.) by Philip II of Macedon. Under the Roman emperors Thessaly was joined to Macedonia, but after the death of Constantine the Great it became a separate province. It passed (1355) to the Turks and was ceded to Greece in 1881.

Bibliography

See A. J. B. Wace, Prehistoric Thessaly (1912); H. D. Hansen, Early Civilization in Thessaly (1933); and H. D. Westlake, Thessaly in the Fourth Century B.C. (1935, repr. 1969).

Thessaly

 

a historical region in central Greece, on the coast of the Aegean Sea, corresponding to the nomes of Larisa, Kardhitsa, Magnisia, and Trikkala. Present-day Thessaly covers an area of 13,900 sq km and has a population of 659,900 (1971).

Thessaly, which lies on the fertile plains of Trikkala and Larisa, is an agricultural region. The granary of Greece, it produces wheat, barley, corn, and legumes, among other grains. Tobacco and cotton are also grown, as well as olives, grapes, and various subtropical fruits. The region has considerable herds of cattle, sheep, and goats. The population also engages in fishing and the mining of copper. Industries include the production of textiles, foodstuffs, tobacco products, cement, metal and wood products, and agricultural machinery; there is also ship repairing and the building of small craft. The main port is Volos; the largest cities are Larisa and Trikkala.

Archaeological excavations of Prepottery Neolithic settlements in Argiss, Souphlion, and Sesklo have shown that the fertile lands of Thessaly encouraged the tribes that settled there to convert to a production economy as early as the middle of the seventh millennium B.C. From the sixth to fourth millennia, during the Neolithic period, the inhabitants of Thessaly, who spoke Pelasgian, engaged in land cultivation, livestock raising, and domestic handicraft production. In the Bronze Age, the Achaeans assumed predominance among the Greek population.

Beginning in the second millennium B.C., an early class government emerged in Thessaly. The Thessalians, an Epirian tribe, settled in Thessaly in the 12th century B.C. and subjugated the local population. The conquerors constituted a class of landholding aristocrats who held sway over dependent farmers, called pelestai. In the fifth century B.C., as a result of the struggle between the demos and the aristocracy, tyranny was established in several cities in Thessaly.

In the fourth century B.C., all Thessaly was united under the tyrant Jason of Pherae. Between 352 and 344 B.C., it was conquered by the Macedonians. After the battle of Cynoscephalae, in 197 B.C., Thessaly, along with other parts of Greece, came within the Roman sphere of influence, and in 148 B.C., it became part of the Roman province of Macedonia.

From A.D. 395 through 1396, Thessaly was part of Byzantium, and from 1396 to 1881 it belonged to Turkey. In 1881, Thessaly became part of Greece.

REFERENCES

Shmidt, R. V. “Iz istoriia Fessalii.” Izv. Gos. Akademii istorii material’noi kul’tury, 1934, issue 101.
Titov, V. S. Neolit Gretsii: Periodizatsia i khronologiia. Moscow, 1969.
Wace, A., and M. S. Thompson. Prehistoric Thessaly. Cambridge, 1912.
Stählin, F. Das hellenische Thessalien. Stuttgart, 1924.
Westlake, H. D. Thessaly in the Fourth Century B.C. London, 1935.

Thessaly

a region of E Central Greece, on the Aegean: an extensive fertile plain, edged with mountains. Pop.: 609 100 (2001). Area: 14 037 sq. km (5418 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
(4) Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medical School of Larissa, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece
(4) Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Larissa, University of Thessaly, School of Medicine, Biopolis, 41110 Larissa, Greece
In Greece the incidence of brucellosis is 1.11 cases/100.000 inhabitants; however in the area of Thessaly in central Greece the rate rises to 8.03 cases/100.000 inhabitants (2).
The Professor of the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Thessaly, Dimitris Kouretas, said the scientific assessment of the possible coexistence would highlight risks which are likely to lead to the protection of agricultural products in Cyprus and to give them added value and cost.Aa
Tenor Colin Ainsworth is a standout as Ottone, the knight of Thessaly who attempts to woo the dethroned queen.
Prime Chartered Accountants Group, which has offices in Warwick Road, has helped develop myownbooking.com which is based in Larissa, capital of the Thessaly region.
Thus all Thrace, Pannonia, and the whole country as far as Macedon and Thessaly were filled with Barbarians, who pillaged all in their way."
Magnesium is named after Magnesia, a region in Thessaly,--.
While the authors discuss sites in various regions, Thessaly and southern Macedonia are the subjects of seven articles (out of thirteen) and skew the geographical coverage.
He apparently does not realize that these two points are mutually exclusive: Ruschenbusch arrived at his enormous figure for the total number of Greek city-states by including hundreds of towns in areas like Phokis, Aitolia, Thessaly, etc., areas where there were in fact no city-states but ethne, overlooking in this the fact that the primary meaning of the Greek word polls was at all times simply "town" or "city" - not "city-state": see e.g.
A separate chapter treats the unusual foundations among the rock spires of central Thessaly. He concludes with a short consideration of monastic revival and the fate of the monasteries.
Throughout the letter, great emphasis is placed on what Hypsipyle has been told of the adventures of Jason.(7) At 6.23-4 it is explained that the teller is a stranger recently arrived from Jason's native Thessaly. In this context, two points must be emphasized.