cephalosporin

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cephalosporin

(sĕf'əlōspôr`ĭn), any of a group of more than 20 antibioticsantibiotic,
any of a variety of substances, usually obtained from microorganisms, that inhibit the growth of or destroy certain other microorganisms. Types of Antibiotics
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 derived from species of fungi of the genus Cephalosporium and closely related chemically to penicillinpenicillin,
any of a group of chemically similar substances obtained from molds of the genus Penicillium that were the first antibiotic agents to be used successfully in the treatment of bacterial infections in humans.
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. Cephalosporins, e.g., cefaclor (Ceclor), act against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (see Gram's stainGram's stain,
laboratory staining technique that distinguishes between two groups of bacteria by the identification of differences in the structure of their cell walls. The Gram stain, named after its developer, Danish bacteriologist Christian Gram, has become an important tool
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) by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. They are widely used to treat gonorrhea, meningitis, and staphylococcal and streptococcal infections in patients who cannot use penicillin. Overuse of cephalosporins has led to increased bacterial resistance to the drugs (see drug resistancedrug resistance,
condition in which infecting bacteria can resist the destructive effects of drugs such as antibiotics and sulfa drugs. Drug resistance has become a serious public health problem, since many disease-causing bacteria are no longer susceptible to previously
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.)

cephalosporin

[‚sef·ə·lə′spȯr·ən]
(microbiology)
Any of a group of antibiotics produced by strains of the imperfect fungus Cephalosporium.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the first half of 2015, we experienced a shortage of ampicillin at Tygerberg Hospital (TBH), such that its use was restricted to a named-patient basis only and empirical cover for fever without a source was changed to a third-generation cephalosporin, even in the absence of meningitis (unpublished data).
coli, ampicillin-gentamicin and third-generation cephalosporin resistance remained stable at [approximately equal to] 50% with no evidence of significant change over time, as did rates of methicillin-resistant S.
The third-generation cephalosporin and quinolones have been recommended (1,2,8,26).
Microbial resistance to third-generation cephalosporin drugs have been increasing significantly as the finding of the present study indicated.
Preoperatively, they were given a third-generation cephalosporin. In this procedure, the patient is placed supine with an extended neck and a rotated head to the side opposite the lesion.
The association of third-generation cephalosporin use and invasive candidiasis in extremely low birth-weight infants.
The introduction of third-generation cephalosporins into clinical practice in the early 1980s was heralded as a major breakthrough in the fight against [beta]-lactamase-mediated bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
CLSI took a similar approach in 2003, when third-generation cephalosporin breakpoints for S.
The patient cohort, accumulated over 129 international sites, was divided into two arms, with 547 patients receiving ceftobiprole and 281 receiving the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin plus the third-generation cephalosporin ceftazidime.
(9) Initial treatment with a second-generation cephalosporin plus a macrolide, or a fluoroquinolone alone may be associated with lower 30-day mortality compared with patients treated with a non-pseudomonal third-generation cephalosporin alone.
Antibiotic therapy with doxycycline (Vibramycin[R]), 100 milligrams (rag.) by mouth intravenously twice a day for seven to 14 days, and a third-generation cephalosporin, such as ceftazidime (Fortaz[R]), 1 to 2 grams intravenously or intramuscularly every eight hours, is generally recommended.
Detecting oxacillin, clindamycin, and vancomycin resistance in staphylococci, vancomycin resistance in enterococci, penicillin and third-generation cephalosporin resistance in pneumococci, and third-generation cephalosporin resistance in enteric Gram-negative bacilli offers significant challenges.

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