Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of

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Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of,

1536–72, English nobleman, son of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey. He succeeded his grandfather, the 3d duke, in 1554. He was favored by Queen Elizabeth I, although he was jealous of the larger measure of confidence she placed in Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester. Norfolk commanded the English forces that intervened in Scotland in 1559–60 and in 1568 was chief of the commission that inquired into Scottish affairs after the flight of Mary Queen of ScotsMary Queen of Scots
(Mary Stuart), 1542–87, only child of James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise. Through her grandmother Margaret Tudor, Mary had the strongest claim to the throne of England after the children of Henry VIII.
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 to England. A widower, he conducted secret negotiations for Mary's hand. Elizabeth heard of the project, however, and forbade it, and Norfolk was imprisoned (1569–70). On his release Norfolk was drawn into the plot of Ridolfi, agent of Philip II of Spain, who was planning a Spanish invasion and the dethronement of Elizabeth. The plot was discovered, Norfolk was imprisoned (1571) in the Tower of London, tried, and beheaded.
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Owned for some hundred years by the FitzAlan family, it became the home of the Dukes of Norfolk after Mary FitzAlan married Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk (1536-1572) in 1555.
If Charles Tilney really envisioned a production at court - and the fact that Buc made dumb-shows for it suggests production at some point Charles would have had to submit the play to his cousin Edmund, who, as Master of the Revels, would have had to approve it for performance.(18) On the other hand, Edmund Tilney owed his own appointment to that post to his family connection with the Howards.(19) That family was obdurately Catholic; and what is more, when Edmund was appointed it was not yet ten years since Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, had been executed for conspiring on behalf of-Mary, Queen of Scots.(20)
Dr Aston concludes that the painting was addressed to a particular purpose and advances two hypotheses as the identity of the recipient: (a) Elizabeth, to boost her into conscious imitation of her Josiah brother by taking down the cross and candles in her private chapel and withdrawing her support for the restorating of the Cheapside Cross (1581), thereby giving clear support to those seeking 'further reform'; (b) Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, then contemplating marriage with Mary Queen of Scots, as a warning, should the marriage take place, of the consequent threat to the entire English nation of relapse into 'idolatry', of which John Foxe (who had close connections with the picture) had warned Norfolk, his sometime pupil.