Thorium Ore

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Thorium Ore


the conventional name for any of the natural mineral formations containing thorium in compounds and concentrations that make commercial use technically feasible and economically practical. Deposits of thorium itself are unknown; the element is extracted as a by-product of the dressing of complex ores. Here, Th is extracted together with Nb, Ta, Zr, U, and rare-earth elements. The content of Th varies in such ores from hundredths to tenths of a percent. The principal thorium-bearing minerals are monazite (3.5–10 percent ThO2), thorite (up to 77 percent ThO2), and thorianite (Th, U)O2 (45–93 percent). The minerals bearing thorium in the ores include silicates, simple and multiple oxides (titanotantaloniobates), phosphates, and carbonates; thorium is present in these minerals as an isomorphous admixture.

A distinction is made between endogenous and exogenous thorium deposits. The endogenous group includes magmatic, pegmatite, carbonatite, albitite, skarn, and hydrothermal deposits, all of which are related to alkalic magmatic rocks. The largest pegmatite deposits are in the vicinity of Bancroft, Canada. A significant thorium-bearing rare-earth carbonatite deposit is located in Mountain Pass, Calif. The maximum content of thorium (3–6 percent) is found in the rare-earth hydrothermal deposits at Steenkampskraal, in the Republic of South Africa. Exogenous deposits include various types (eluvial, alluvial, coastal) of monazite placers, some of which are buried. The exogenous deposits constitute the major source of thorium. The largest coastal deposits are in India (with monazite content in the sand averaging 0.75 percent) and Brazil (2–5 percent).


Geologiia postmagmaticheskikh torievo-redkometal’nykh mestorozhdenii. Moscow, 1972.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
On Friday, October 19, 2018, the EPA said that its existing rules were sufficient for the protection of public health and safety from radiological and non-radiological hazards associated with uranium and thorium ore processing.
languages Other major languages include Zarma, Songhay, Fulfulde, and Tamasheq TRADE Volume of exports $i.2bn Main markets France (44%), Nigeria (12%), Burkina Faso (11%), China (11%), US (6.7%) Exports Nuclear derivatives (45.7%), refined petroleum (20.9%), uranium & thorium ore (8.9%) Volume of imports $2.3bn Main suppliers China (20%), France (13%), USA (5.4%), India (4.2%), Thailand (3-8%), Japan (3.3%) Imports Rice (5.7%), cement (4.1%), machinery (3.9%), cars (3.9%) DEMOGRAPHICS Population 19.9m Active population 6.1m Urban population 18.5% CURRENCY CFA West African CFA Franc (XOF) CFA/USD 581 CFA/EURO 656 (pegged to the Euro) ECONOMY GDP growth 2015--3.6% 2016--est.
Mining and refining thorium ore is simpler and cleaner than mining and refining uranium ore.
Ores BH-1 Tungsten ore CD-1 Antimony ore CH-3 Gold-bearing sulfide ore CT-1 Tungsten ore HV-1 Copper-molybdenum ore KC-1a Zinc-lead-tin-silver ore MA-1b Gold ore MA-2b Gold ore MA-3 Gold ore MP-1a Zinc-tin-copper-lead ore MP-2 Tungsten-molybdenum ore MW-1 Iron ore OKA-1 Niobium ore OKA-2 Rare-earth - thorium ore PR-1 Molybdenum ore PTA-1 Platiniferous black sand SCH-1 Iron ore SU-1a Nickel-copper-cobalt ore TAN-1 Tantalum ore TLG-1 Tungsten ore
The Industrial market report offers a comprehensive guide to the size and shape of the Mining of Uranium and Thorium Ores market at a national level.
* Get a detailed picture of the Mining of Uranium and Thorium Ores market;
- Mining of Uranium and Thorium Ores in South Korea: Industy Report
Furthermore, although the list exempted mining of many materials, it specifically omitted the mining of uranium and thorium ores, two materials commonly used as nuclear fuel.
How rich then are the thorium ores? From an Oak Ridge National Laboratory paper: While natural thorium is more abundant than uranium in the very long term, most of the thorium reserves are present as very low grade ores; the amounts of low-cost reserves are about the same for uranium and thorium.
As early as 1905 he had noted that lead was always present in uranium and thorium ores. In 1907 he pointed out that from the quantity of lead in uranium ores and from the known rate of uranium disintegration, it might be posible to determine with reasonable accuracy how long a portion of the Earth's crust had been solid and had existed essentially undisturbed.
- Mining of Uranium and Thorium Ores in Mexico: Industrial Report