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(tanager family), a family of birds of the order Passeriformes. The Thraupidae range from 7.6 to 30 cm in length. The bill is conical. The plumage is very brightly colored, often with spotted areas (for example, red or green). In most species the sexes are unlike in coloration.
There are 236 species of Thraupidae, distributed in North America, Central America, and South America except for the extreme north and treeless south. Some species are migratory. The Thraupidae inhabit forests and shrubs; in tropical forests, they keep to the tops of trees. The nest is cup-shaped; in some species, it is dome-shaped or built in tree hollows. A clutch contains two eggs or, more rarely, as many as five eggs. The incubation period is ten to 14 days, sometimes longer; the female incubates the eggs. The diet consists of insects and small succulent fruits. Birds of this family are often kept as cage birds. Some ornithologists regard the family Thraupidae as a subfamily of the family Emberizidae.