Three Kingdoms

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Three Kingdoms,

period of Chinese history from 220 to 265, after the collapse of the Han dynasty. The period takes its name from the three states into which China was divided. Wei occupied the north. South of Wei were Shu in the west and Wu in the east. Each of the states steadily expanded, especially Shu, which moved into modern Yunnan and Myanmar. Wei, however, later steadily increased its strength and crushed Shu in 264. When a usurper seized the Wei throne in 265 and founded the TsinTsin
or Chin
, dynasty of China that ruled from 265 to 420, after the period of the Three Kingdoms. It was divided into two phases: the Western Tsin (265–317) and the Eastern Tsin (317–420).
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 dynasty, the Three Kingdoms period officially came to an end. The Tsin did not conquer the Wu, however until 280. Disorders during the Three Kingdoms period included not only warfare between the Chinese states but also incursions into the north by the Hsiung-nu. The era is fondly regarded in China as exemplifying the highest ideals of chivalry and has been depicted in the adventurous novel San Kuo Chih Yen I [romance of the three kingdoms]. The disorder and disunity of the time caused the eclipse of Confucianism, but opened Chinese culture to new influences, such as native Taoism and Indian Buddhism. From India also came many advances in scientific learning. As knowledge of the outside world grew, maps were improved and a grid system of coordinates was invented. Art was predominantly Buddhist in inspiration and showed many central Asian traits.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Three Kingdoms


a period in the history of China (220 to 265 or 220 to 280), named for the number of kingdoms that formed after the disintegration of the Han Empire in 220. It was characterized by political fractionalization and incessant strife among the three kingdoms of Wei, Wu, and Shu. In the first half of its existence, the Shu kingdom waged successful wars under the command of the illustrious Chu-ko Liang (died 234). Subsequently, the Shu kingdom was seriously weakened by internal conflicts and in 263 was annexed by the Wei kingdom. In 265 power in the Wei kingdom was seized by the general Ssu-ma Yen, who founded the Western Ch’in dynasty (265–316) in the same year and conquered Wu in 280.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
In addition, Ogilvy's wire to the Astronomical Exchange had roused every observatory in the three kingdoms.
Is this the still militant old man, standing at the corners of the three kingdoms, on all hands coercing alms of beggars?
After he had wandered through three kingdoms, he came one evening to a wood, and lay down under a tree to sleep.
He threw himself into a chair, laughing and groaning, and bid them all stand off, for he was nearly killed - he would not have such another walk for the three kingdoms.
Of the three kingdoms which share the terrestrial globe between them, one alone was represented on the lunar and that the mineral.
With you, D'Artagnan, with you, Porthos -- all four reunited for the first time for twenty years -- we would dare not only England, but the three kingdoms put together!"
Why is that tattling old harridan, Peggy O'Dowd, to make free with my name at her d--d supper-table, and advertise my engagement over the three kingdoms? After all, what right have you to say I am engaged, or to meddle in my business at all, Dobbin?"
England had been for so long a time given up to herself -- that is to say, to tyranny, mediocrity, and nonsense -- that this return of Charles II., whom the English only knew as the son of the man whose head they had cut off, was a festival for the three kingdoms. Consequently, all the good wishes, all the acclamations which accompanied his return, struck the young king so forcibly that he stooped and whispered in the ear of James of York, his younger brother, "In truth, James, it seems to have been our own fault that we were so long absent from a country where we are so much beloved!" The pageant was magnificent.
I will back this ham," he added, after swallowing some morsels with alarming haste, "against any ham in the three kingdoms. In my opinion it is better than the hams at Freshitt Hall-- and I think I am a tolerable judge."
Baekje was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, together with Goguryeo and Silla.
The proposers were stunningly aware of the thousands and thousands of military and civilian Scots who died during the course of their and their parents' lifetimes in the 1600s, especially during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
Synopsis: Two continents at war, the Three Kingdoms and Ishara, are divided by past bloodshed.