Three Kingdoms

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Three Kingdoms,

period of Chinese history from 220 to 265, after the collapse of the Han dynasty. The period takes its name from the three states into which China was divided. Wei occupied the north. South of Wei were Shu in the west and Wu in the east. Each of the states steadily expanded, especially Shu, which moved into modern Yunnan and Myanmar. Wei, however, later steadily increased its strength and crushed Shu in 264. When a usurper seized the Wei throne in 265 and founded the TsinTsin
or Chin
, dynasty of China that ruled from 265 to 420, after the period of the Three Kingdoms. It was divided into two phases: the Western Tsin (265–317) and the Eastern Tsin (317–420).
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 dynasty, the Three Kingdoms period officially came to an end. The Tsin did not conquer the Wu, however until 280. Disorders during the Three Kingdoms period included not only warfare between the Chinese states but also incursions into the north by the Hsiung-nu. The era is fondly regarded in China as exemplifying the highest ideals of chivalry and has been depicted in the adventurous novel San Kuo Chih Yen I [romance of the three kingdoms]. The disorder and disunity of the time caused the eclipse of Confucianism, but opened Chinese culture to new influences, such as native Taoism and Indian Buddhism. From India also came many advances in scientific learning. As knowledge of the outside world grew, maps were improved and a grid system of coordinates was invented. Art was predominantly Buddhist in inspiration and showed many central Asian traits.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Three Kingdoms


a period in the history of China (220 to 265 or 220 to 280), named for the number of kingdoms that formed after the disintegration of the Han Empire in 220. It was characterized by political fractionalization and incessant strife among the three kingdoms of Wei, Wu, and Shu. In the first half of its existence, the Shu kingdom waged successful wars under the command of the illustrious Chu-ko Liang (died 234). Subsequently, the Shu kingdom was seriously weakened by internal conflicts and in 263 was annexed by the Wei kingdom. In 265 power in the Wei kingdom was seized by the general Ssu-ma Yen, who founded the Western Ch’in dynasty (265–316) in the same year and conquered Wu in 280.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The dance form was derived from the Three Kingdoms Period since the lion is a symbol for boldness and strength that protects people. People believe that by performing the lion dance, they will be able to lead an auspicious and happy life.
Tian investigates how the turn of the third century CE, known as the Jian'an era or Three Kingdoms period, came to hold very different places in Chinese culture.
The pottery of Unified Silla was based on the traditions of the Three Kingdoms period, but gradually lost its strong regional aspects as it incorporated traits of pottery from other countries.
Sky lanterns were first invented during the Three Kingdoms period (AD 220-265) in ancient China by military strategist Zhuge Liang to transmit information and are considered the earliest precursor to the hot air balloon.
"Samguk Yusa," or Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms, is another collection of historical accounts of the Three Kingdoms period and it mainly focuses on legends and folktales.
Despite its origin, there are now hundreds of statues of Chinese gods and goddesses, such as those of Guan Yu, a general from China's Three Kingdoms period in the third century, and Guan Yin, a female Bodhisattva in Chinese Buddhism.
Established for this exhibition by a group of researchers and musicians, the studio represented a compilation of audiovisual dissent and was named after a subversive scholar and musician of the Three Kingdoms period of the third century.
When discussing Cao Cao, the statesman of the Wei state of the Three Kingdoms period, the authors define him as a successful "military technician and literary hero" and emphasize that his popular and often negative image as a cunning strategist exists in folk stories and legends that also deified Zhuge Liang, Cao's main foe, as an all-knowing superhero.
With the final disintegration of the Han and the emergence of the intense political rivalry of the Three Kingdoms period, the Weak China/Strong Vietnam equilibrium entered a new phase, and a loose tributary bond was reintroduced in the relationship.
According to the company, Tao Yuan, adapted from legendary stories of heroes in the Three Kingdoms period in China, is a turn-based game developed using the Unreal3 game engine.
New Delhi, May 19 (ANI): Archaeologists in central China's Henan Province claim to have disinterred a tomb of Cao Xiu, a prominent general from the Three Kingdoms period (220 AD-280 AD), and a bronze seal found at the site that bore his name on it, confirmed that it was indeed his tomb.