By mid century, the park's climate is projected to improve for birds that live in dry forests at mid elevation, like the western tanager, pygmy nuthatch, and red-naped sapsucker, and worsen for birds in cooler, wetter, high-elevation forests, like the American three-toed woodpecker
, pine grosbeak, and Townsend's solitaire.
Genetic or social polyandry ([greater than or equal to]1 male, 1 female) has been reported in many other woodpecker species (for example, Lesser Spotted Woodpecker [Dendrocopos minor; Rossmanith and others 2006]; Great Spotted Woodpecker [Dendrocopos major; Kotaka 1998]; Northern Flicker [Colaptes auratus; Wiebe 2002]; Acorn Woodpecker [Joste and others 1985; Koenig and others 1984]; West Indian Woodpecker [Melanerpes superciliaris; Willimont and others 1991]), including the Eurasian Three-toed Woodpecker
(Pechacek and others 2005, 2006), which is closely related to the Black-backed Woodpecker (Fuchs and Pons 2015).
The state's two rarest woodpeckers--the three-toed woodpecker
and the black-backed woodpecker (pictured on page 24)--depend on forest fires to keep their populations healthy.
Therefore, they are concordant with phylogeographic studies of the three-toed woodpecker
(Picoides tridactylus, Zink et al.
Breeding performance, natal dispersal and nest site fidelity of three-toed woodpecker
in the German Alps.
"For more than 250 years the three-toed woodpecker
barely eked out an existence in the high forests here in the Rockies," Cart noted.
I don't think any birdwatcher would want one, though last night at sunset I had a great homed owl fly under my stand and earlier I'd had a ladder-backed, three-toed woodpecker
nearly perch on my ear.
Ornithologist Bob Eng, a retired Montana State University professor, says he has birded in Montana his entire career and had only observed one three-toed woodpecker
. The summer after the fires, he recorded 30 sightings in Yellowstone in a single day.
The area's critter list includes bighorn sheep, deer, pine marten, goshawk, elk, northern three-toed woodpecker
, black bear, cougar, and peregrine falcon.
Although each ancient hemlock, if harvested, would yield many board-feet of wood, Childs has left them in place, largely because snags of his giant hemlocks harbor the migratory Arctic three-toed woodpecker
that is rarely seen south of the St.
In Oregon, biologists are studying bald eagle nesting and three-toed woodpecker