in rail and river transport, the carriage of passengers and freight from one point to another through intermediate points.
In railroad transport, the term is also applied to through trains and through cars. Through freight is usually carried by through trains, which pass through classification yards and sector stations without the re-forming of the trains.
In river transport, the concept of through conveyance is applied to carriage that involves two or more adjacent shipping lines (direct conveyance) or takes place between ports or landings of the same shipping line (internal conveyance). Through carriage can also be accomplished by the combined use of railroads and shipping lines.
Through conveyance is used in transport both within a country and between countries, for example, in the transport of passengers and freight through a second country to a third country. The establishment of international through traffic simplifies the tasks of export and import organizations and makes it unnecessary for the organizations to transship and redispatch freight or to draw up additional documents and calculate additional carriage charges at border points and ports. Freight carriage between various countries is carried out on the basis of agreements between the countries.
M. I. CHERNOV