Tiahuanaco


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Tiahuanaco

(tyäwänä`kō), ancient native ruin, W Bolivia, 34 mi (55 km) S of Lake TiticacaTiticaca
, lake, c.3,200 sq mi (8,290 sq km), 110 mi (177 km) long, and c.900 ft (270 m) deep at at its deepest point, in the Andes Mts., on the Bolivia-Peru border; second largest freshwater lake in South America and the world's highest large lake (c.
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 on the Tiahuanaco R. in the S central Andes, near the Peruvian border; also called Tiwanaku or Tiahuanacu. Nearly 13,000 ft (3,962 m) above sea level, Tiahuanaco was probably the center of a pre-Inca empire and is believed by some to have been built by the AymaraAymara
, Native South Americans inhabiting the Lake Titicaca basin in Peru and Bolivia. The originators of the great culture represented by the ruins of Tiahuanaco were very likely Aymara speakers. Although subjugated by the Inca in the 15th cent.
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 and to have had some 30,000–40,000 inhabitants. Much of the construction is unfinished. Building was begun at some time before A.D. 500, and there is evidence of additional construction c.1100–1300. About 1000, Tiahuanaco culture spread to E Bolivia, N Chile, and Peru; the culture flourished for about 200 years. Built of massive blocks weighing up to 100 tons and brought from several miles away, the structures of Tiahuanaco consisted of terraced pyramids, courts, temples (some containing monolithic stone statues of human figures), and urban areas covering some 2.3 sq mi (13.6 sq m) and are superb examples of masonry. The stones, fitted together without mortar, were cut, squared, dressed, and notched with a precision equaled in no other aboriginal South American civilization, not even the Inca. Construction is largely of the platform or monolithic type decorated by conventional incised carving or heads in low relief. The creators of Tiahuanaco excelled as well at ceramics; Tiahuanaco painted pottery is one of the great achievements of pre-Columbian art. Also found at Tiahuanaco were goods made of copper, silver, and obsidian, thought to have been used by the society's elite members.

Bibliography

See A. Posnansky, Tiahuanacu (4 vol., 1945–58); J. A. Mason, The Ancient Civilizations of Peru (1957, rev. ed. 1988); A. L. Kolata, The Tiwanaku (1993).

Tiahuanaco

 

an American Indian civilization that existed in northern Bolivia at the end of the first millennium B.C. and in the first millennium A.D. Located southeast of Lake Titicaca are the remains of the center of Tiahuanaco, which measured 40 hectares in area and was characterized by blocks of dwellings. Structures in the settlement were made mainly of basalt and sandstone blocks. Remains include the Akapana pyramid, 15 m in height, and the Kalasasaya temple complex, which, once enclosed by a wall with a staircase at the entrance, is known for the monolithic Gateway to the Sun and its frieze depicting a god and rows of mythical creatures running toward him. The site also includes the Palacio and the ruins of other buildings. Richly ornamented stone figures and patterned and painted pottery were among objects discovered at the site.

The founders of Tiahuanaco were related to the tribes of central Peru. They grew crops, raised llamas, and apparently reached the level of an early class society. At the end of the first millennium A.D., Tiahuanaco wielded influence over an extensive area, which probably reflected the political supremacy of its founders. The civilization also greatly influenced the ancient art of the Andes. At the end of the first millennium A.D., the civilization of Tiahuanaco came to an end and its territory was occupied by ancestors of the modern-day Ay mará Indians.

REFERENCE

Bashilov, V. A. Drevnie tsivilizatsii Peru i Bolivii. Moscow, 1972. Pages 58–72.
References in periodicals archive ?
Se encuentra entre 2,400 y 3,600msnm se le asocia generalmente con Wari, ademas de que los andenes ubicados en Tiahuanaco entre los 3,800 y 4,000msnm en la zona altiplanica son de este tipo, sobre los 4,000 pocos pudieron recibir riego, puede ser su canal de tipo subterraneo.
Pero, por la misma epoca de Posnansky y sus planteamientos sobre la cultura Tiahuanaco, considerados por algunos como extremadamente especulativos (Lissner, 1957; Steward, 1946), encontramos a un pedagogo belga, Georges Rouma (1881-1976), contratado por el Gobierno boliviano de Ismael Montes en 1905, para crear un nuevo sistema educativo en ese pais, junto con un grupo de profesores (3), conocido como "la mision belga", a fin de que "realizara un diagnostico de la educacion en la republica y creara un nuevo sistema de ensenanza primaria, secundaria y normal "moderno" que encajara con los postulados liberales y europeizantes que gobernaban el pais" (Yapu, 2011, p.
Sobre sus primeros pobladores, una de las teorias senala que fueron cientos de emigrados de Tiahuanaco, en el altiplano andino, lo que hoy es Bolivia, y que salieron de alli ante el colapso de esa civilizacion; lo que explicaria la similitud de las construcciones de piedra de Tiahuanaco y de los incas.
En lo Socio-Cultural existen dos grandes culturas vigentes (Aymara y Quechua), que tambien son idiomas prevalecientes junto al Castellano (El Aymara, de la civilizacion Tiahuanaco y Quechua, de la civilizacion Inca).
The Wari were the ancestors of the better-known Incas, cultural cousins to the people who built Tiahuanaco, and may be the first empire in the Americas.
Esta percepcion del nativo del Nuevo Mundo como entidad general no es banal, y es varios siglos anterior a la segunda declaracion de Tiahuanaco (de 1983), que lanza el movimiento panindigena iniciado varios anos antes en Bolivia.
He asks them to imagine flying over the urban sprawl of Tiahuanaco, in modern-day Bolivia, one of the oldest metropolises of the ancient Andes, or to examine from a height the farm of Dona Rosario, a descendant of runaway slaves in Brazil.
Al sureste de Mexico y en Centroamerica, se desarrollo la cultura maya (7) y en Sudamerica la cultura inca incorporo a las civilizaciones chavin (8), paracas (9), mochica (10), nazca (11), tiahuanaco (12), huari (13), chincha (14) y chimu (15).
En Sudamerica, Tiahuanaco en el altiplano aymara boliviano, Sacsahuaman en las alturas del Cuzco, Machu Pichu y su energia hermetica, escondida hasta el siglo XX en la ceja andina hacia la amazonia, son ciudades que compiten con los testimonios culturales de Asia y Europa.
En la Epoca 1 del Horizonte Medio este mismo periodo, en Ayacucho empezo a producirse la ceramica de estilo Chakipampa (caracterizada por Dorothy Menzel), y con otros rasgos estilisticos y temas asociados con los estilos Nasca 9 y Tiahuanaco [4].
Se cree que este craneo pertenecio a un miembro de la civilizacion de Tiwanaku o Tiahuanaco, establecida en los territorios que actualmente ocupan parte de Bolivia y Peru en America del Sur.
The pre-Inca Tiahuanaco civilization believed that the Sun and Viracocha both emerged from the mysterious depths of the lake and that Viracocha created heaven and earth.