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Tiberius(Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus) (tībēr`ēəs), 42 B.C.–A.D. 37, second Roman emperor (A.D. 14–A.D. 37). He was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia DrusillaLivia Drusilla
, c.55 B.C.–A.D. 29, Roman matron; mother of the Roman emperor Tiberius. She first married Tiberius Claudius Nero. Tiberius was his son. In 38 B.C., Augustus forced her husband to divorce her so that he might marry her himself.
..... Click the link for more information. and was originally named Tiberius Claudius Nero. He campaigned (20 B.C.) in Armenia, became (19 B.C.) governor of Transalpine Gaul, and aided (12 B.C.) his brother DrususDrusus
, Roman family of the gens Livius. An early distinguished member was Marcus Livius Drusus, d. 109? B.C., tribune of the people (122) with Caius Sempronius Gracchus (see under Gracchi).
..... Click the link for more information. on the Rhine and the Danube. AugustusAugustus
, 63 B.C.–A.D. 14, first Roman emperor, a grandson of the sister of Julius Caesar. Named at first Caius Octavius, he became on adoption by the Julian gens (44 B.C.) Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Octavian); Augustus was a title of honor granted (27 B.C.
..... Click the link for more information. , his stepfather, compelled him (12 B.C.) to divorce his wife, Vipsania Agrippina, and to marry Julia, the widow of Agrippa and daughter of Augustus. After the death of Drusus (9 B.C.) he campaigned in Germany, and following a second consulship (7 B.C.) he retired to Rhodes for seven years. On his return he was adopted as heir of the emperor and was sent (A.D. 4) into Germany. Five years later he subjugated Illyricum. Tiberius succeeded without difficulty on the death of Augustus in A.D. 14. He spent his efforts in continuing the policies of Augustus, with one exception; he drastically cut luxury expenses, including public shows. By so doing and by reforming the tax situation in the provinces he greatly improved the financial state of the government and made himself extremely unpopular in Rome. For years SejanusSejanus
(Lucius Aelius Sejanus) , d. A.D. 31, Roman statesman; son of Sejus Strabo, Praetorian prefect. When his father went to Egypt as governor, he succeeded to the command of the Praetorian Guards and obtained great ascendancy over Emperor Tiberius.
..... Click the link for more information. was his chief aid and confidant. Tiberius retired to Capri in A.D. 26 and ruled thereafter by correspondence. He grew suspicious of intrigues and in A.D. 31 had Sejanus killed. Modern historians have been inclined to treat his administration more favorably than did Roman historians. He was succeeded by CaligulaCaligula
, A.D. 12–A.D. 41, Roman emperor (A.D. 37–A.D. 41); son of Germanicus Caesar and Agrippina the Elder. His real name was Caius Caesar Germanicus. As a small child, he wore military boots, whence his nickname [caligula=little boot].
..... Click the link for more information. .
See studies by F. B. Marsh (1931) and R. Seager (1972).
(Tiberius Claudius Nero). Born 42 B.C.; died A.D. 37. Roman emperor from A.D. 14 to 37.
Tiberius was the stepson of Augustus, who adopted him in A.D. 4 and designated Tiberius in his will as his successor. Until A.D. 14, Tiberius held important state posts and served in Augustus’ military campaigns. Sources portray him as suspicious and hypocritical. During the first years of his reign, Tiberius ruled in harmony with the Senate, but he later implemented an autocratic policy, supported by the praetorians, whose camp was located in Rome. Much influence was exerted at court by the praetorian prefects Sejanus in the 20’s and Macro in the 30’s.
In an attempt to regulate the tax system in the provinces, Tiberius prosecuted provincial governors and tax farmers for abuses. He curtailed expenditures for public construction and entertainment, as well as the distribution of money and bread to the plebs. In 33 he loaned 100 million sesterces to Italian landowners on favorable terms.
REFERENCESSergeev, V. S. “Printsipat Tiberiia.” Vestnik drevnei istorii, 1940, no. 2.
Kornemann, E. Tiberius. Stuttgart [I960].