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the language of the Tibetans; spoken in the Tibetan Autonomous Region and certain other areas of the People’s Republic of China, as well as in India, Nepal, and Bhutan. The number of Tibetan-speaking people is approximately 4.5 million (1974, estimate). The language belongs to the Tibeto-Burman group of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages.

Tibetan dialects differ mainly in their phonetics, for example, the presence or absence of a system of tones. They are classified as archaic, such as A-mdo and the Dege dialect, and nonarchaic, for example, the dialect of Lhasa (the basis of the standard language) and that of Shigatse. The phonological system includes 16 vowel phonemes, distinguished by three tone levels and three degrees of labialization, and 36 consonant phonemes. The tones are phonemically distinctive. Tibetan is an isolating language with an agglutinative, inflectional morphology. It is polysyllabic, with a correspondence between syllables and morphemes. Nouns and pronouns have the category of number, and verbs have person, mood, aspect, and tense. Word formation is by agglutinative affixation, compounding, and reduplication. A peculiarity of the Tibetan language is its use of honorifics in vocabulary and grammar. The first written texts date from the seventh through tenth centuries. The alphabet is based on the Indian Devanagari script.


Rerikh, Iu. N. Tibetskii iazyk. Moscow, 1961.
Parfionovich, Iu. M. Tibetskii pis’mennyi iazyk. Moscow, 1970.
Kratkii tibetsko-russkii slovar ’. Moscow, 1963.
Richter, E. Grundlagen der Phonetik der Lhasa Dialektes. Berlin, 1964.
Sedláček, K. Tibetan Newspaper Reader, vols. 1–2. Leipzig, 1972.
Buck, S. H. Tibetan-English Dictionary With Supplement. Washington, D.C., 1969.


References in periodicals archive ?
Tibetan Women's Uprising Day is an event to remember the day when Tibetan women from all the three provinces of Tibet, for the first time stood together and protested against the brutality of Chinese forces that were occupying since 1959.
It is the 15th year that a rally has been held in Taiwan to mark Tibetan National Uprising Day, which is observed on March 10 to commemorate the 1959 Tibetan rebellion against Chinese rule.
In the future it will be more difficult for Tibetan refugees in Nepal," says Baumann.
We deduce that most of the interviewees were ordinary Tibetan refugees who were not CTA employees.
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We have made it clear that if Tibetans want to vote they must apply for Indian citizenship," a home ministry official said adding that they can't have the status of refugees and citizens at the same time.
Having elaborated these theories of collective and territorial charisma, in Chapter four Smyer Yu sets his sights on examining how the "emerging cyber-version of Tibetan Buddhism in China" has amplified "the charismatic appeal of Tibetan tulkus and their communities for Chinese Buddhists" (76).
The earliest Tibetan refugees arrived in Nepal in 1959, when the Dalai Lama fled Tibet.
Local Tibetans took her body to the monastery and offered prayers.
com/tibetan-self-immolation-protests-now-happen-nepal-too-1082682) outside the Tibetan Autonomous Region, Xinhua itself reported just last May that two self-immolation cases had taken place in Lhasa, outside Jokhang Temple, the holiest site and popular tourist destination of the Tibetan capital.
Pan of Tibetan immigrant's apealing for Support from Indian government
The history of Tibetan migration can be traced back to communist China's invasion of Tibet in 1949 and the subsequent perpetration of human rights violation till 1959 when a revolt broke out in Lhasa, Tibet's administrative capital and when China annexed whole of the Tibet.

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