a machine for the printing and simultaneous issuance of tickets, used in mass service. The first ticket-printing machine for the sale of tickets was made in France and tested at the Gare du Nord in Paris in 1897. In 1910 lot production of ticket-printing machines was organized in Germany. Technical uprgrading of the ticket printing machine led to its mass use in the early 1950’s. In the USSR ticket-printing machines have been in use on railroads since 1960.
Three types of ticket-printing machines are distinguished: automatic ticket-printing machines operated by the passenger (client), automatic ticket-printing machines operated by the cashier, and cashier-operated terminals connected through communications channels with a digital computer. The basic units of an automatic ticket-printing machine are a coin mechanism which accepts and controls deposited coins, an actuating unit which prints and issues tickets, a cashier unit which stores the coins and counts sales, and an operational unit which controls and regulates the work of the machine. The basic units of the automatic ticket-printing machine operated by the cashier are a setting device on which the cashier sets the client’s order, a device for storing the data that are printed on the ticket, an actuating mechanism for printing and issuing tickets, and a device for counting the tickets sold. The client’s request is set by the cashier on the panel of his computer terminal and is transmitted by the electronic assembly of the terminal to the digital computer, where it is processed. The result is transmitted by the digital computer back to the electronic assembly of the cashier-operated terminal, which issues the required tickets through the printing device. In the event of rejection the digital computer “suggests” through the cashier-operated terminal new variants on the order and provides information.
Depending on the design of the printing devices, ticket-printing machines can be classified into stereotype, typesetting, and combined (stereotype-typesetting) machines.
Automatic ticket-printing machines fully automate accounting and reporting in ticket-cashier operations. The automatic ticket-printing machine operated by the cashier increases the productivity of cashiers by 25–50 percent, and the cashier-operated terminal by 100–150 percent. In 1970 there were about 10,000 ticket-printing machines in operation on the railroads of the USSR; in the future the use of ticket-printing machines is planned in other types of transport, communal-service enterprises, in trade, and the like. Cashier-operated terminals (peripheral devices of digital computers) will be used extensively in the national economy.
REFERENCEKleimenov, A. E. Mashiny i mekhanizmy dlia biletno-kassovykh operatsii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1967.
A. E. KLEIMENOV and B. E. MARCHUK