where [R.sub.i] is the enhancement factor of confinement elements in confined masonry structures in the ith direction; [[gamma].sub.ci], [[gamma].sub.bi], and [[gamma].sub.si] are three coefficients considering, respectively, the impacts of tie columns, tie beams
, and rigid floor slabs on the structural performance of the whole structure in the ith direction.
The end of each tie beam
was reinforced with either one or two cross bolts (Fig.
Specimen Q-2 was designed as a reinforced CSRE wall with a precast concrete tie beam
and two concrete tie columns, as shown in Figure 1(c).
The load-carrying capacities of these connections are unknown, but they are expected to be limited by their location near the end of the tie beam
. Related work with through bolt and dowel nut joints (Eckelman 2004) indicates that joint capacity can be increased either by locating the mortise farther from the end of the beam or by reinforcing the end-wall of the mortise with a cross bolt.
For this bridge, with its box section tension tie beam
fabricated from two flange and two web plates, the web and flange plates are connected by structural angles in each interior corner of the box through rows of stitch bolts.
The axial force acting on the ends of the tie beam
amounted to 806 pounds.
The front and back top plates along with the tie beam
provide resistance to lateral forces applied to the walls by the side rafter plates and also locate the position of the tops of the corner posts spatially in a side-to-side direction.
Columns, footing tie beams
, backfilling and concrete slabs were constructed for nine buildings, while only columns and footing tie beams
could be seen for the other three buildings,' the COA said in the report.