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see TianjinTianjin
or Tientsin
, city and independent municipality (2010 pop. 12,938,224), NE China. In E central Hebei prov., it is a politically independent unit (4,400 sq mi/11,399 sq km) administered directly by the central government.
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, China.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city under direct central control in China and one of the main economic centers of the country. Population, 4.4 million (1974). Since December 1973, the city of Tientsin and adjacent area (the Tientsin Municipality) have formed a special administrative unit consisting of 12 municipal districts and five rural counties with a total area of 11,000 sq km and a population of 6.3 million (1973).

Tientsin is located on the North China Plain, about 50 km from the coast of the Pohai Wan of the Yellow Sea. In the city, five rivers come together to form the Hai Ho. Tientsin’s outer port is at T’angku, which is located on the Pohai Wan. Tientsin, called Peking’s gate to the sea, is an important rail and air junction; the city’s river port is situated at the confluence of the Hai Ho and the Grand Canal.

As a commercial and distribution center, Tientsin’s importance is on a par with that of Shanghai. The city accounts for more than one-fourth of China’s foreign trade. The most highly developed sector of the city’s industry is the manufacture of textiles, mainly cotton cloth, and carpets; other branches of industry include food processing and the manufacture of tobacco products, rubber goods, leather goods, paper, and matches. The proportion of the economy devoted to heavy industries, such as metallurgy, machine building, and the manufacture of chemical products, is growing. The city also produces electrical equipment, machinery for textile mills, mining equipment, diesel engines, ships, steel structural members, tools, precision instruments, machine tools, and agricultural machinery; there are assemblages of tractors and motor vehicles as well.

There are two universities in Tientsin. The T’angshan coal basin, an iron ore deposit, and the Ch’anglu salt mines are near the city. Cotton and vegetables are cultivated.

Tientsin was founded in the 13th century on the site of the fishing settlement of Chihku and received its present name in 1405. The city became the capital of a prefecture in 1725 and of a province in 1731. In August 1860, during the Anglo-French-Chinese War of 1860 (Second Opium War), Tientsin was captured by British and French forces. According to the Peking Anglo-Chinese and French-Chinese treaties of 1860, the city was opened to foreign trade. Soon afterward, Great Britain, France, and the USA established settlements in the city. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, settlements were also founded by Germany, Japan, tsarist Russia, and a number of other states. In July 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion, Tientsin was occupied by troops from eight countries. From 1937 to 1945 it was held by Japanese invaders. Tientsin was liberated from the Kuomintang by units of the People’s Liberation Army on Jan. 15,1949.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


, Tientsin, T'ien-ching
an industrial city in NE China, in Hebei province, on the Grand Canal, 51 km (32 miles) from the Yellow Sea: the third largest city in China; seat of Nankai University (1919). Pop.: 9 346 000 (2005 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
In view of the gravity of affairs at Peking and its neighbourhood, and the possibility of all communication being cut off by the "Boxers" between the Capital and Tientsin, leaving our respective Ministers isolated and unable to communicate with their Government or with us in this anchorage; it seems to me desirable that the respective Senior Officer of the Ships of War present here (except the Chinese) should meet together to consider the situation.
In November 1922, now Captain (CPT) Brannon joined the 15th Regiment in Tientsin, where he served as assistant adjutant.
(8) While sovereignty and interstate relations had been problematized and compromised throughout the long history of the Sino-centric order, its material and normative pillars started to unravel in the process of institutional adaptation by East Asian actors themselves in their local encounters--such as the Treaty of Tientsin (Tianjin) (1871) between China and Japan and the Treaty of Kanghwa (1876) between Japan and Korea.
In 1870, Japan's Meiji Government made an approach to China to propose the conclusion of a friendship/commercial Treaty and this was duly signed on 24 July 1871 and fully ratified in Tianjin (Tientsin) on 13 September the same year by Marquis Date Munenari on behalf of Japan and Plenipotentiary Li Hongzhang for China.
Tangshan was at the epicentre of the earthquake, although it badly damaged Tientsin. Tremors were also felt in Beijing, where residents were urged to live in the streets and keep to open spaces as it was not thought to be safe to return to their homes in the city.
She also expanded into related areas as diverse as gleaming, chrome-embellished radio cabinets, beautiful handknotted rugs produced in Tientsin, China, and gorgeous fabric designs woven in France, examples of which can be seen in the Victoria & Albert museum."
They added that their company will resume cooperation on production after recently ending a contract with Sampo's factory in Tientsin to produce 120,000 fridges a year for TCL.
In 1858 China again was forced by Britain, France and others to sign the Treaty of Tientsin, which opened additional port cities to foreign trade and commerce, legalized the import of opium, allowed missionaries to travel freely to parts of China, and paid indemnity to western powers.
Woodhead, ed., The China Year Book (Tientsin and Shanghai: North China Daily News and Herald), 957.
In 1860, he signed the Treaty of Tientsin, accepting all demands of the East India Company; which, by that time had removed the Mughal Emperor in India and taken over the bulk of the once great Mughal Empire as well.