(before taking monastic vows in 1891, Vasilii Ivanovich Belavin). Born Dec. 19 (31), 1865, in Toropets; died Apr. 7, 1925, in Moscow, Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia.

A graduate of the St. Petersburg Theological Academy, Tikhon became a bishop in 1897. From 1898 to 1907 he served as an archbishop in North America. From 1907 to 1913 he was archbishop of Iaroslavl’ and Rostov and headed a local branch of the monarchist Black Hundreds organization League of the Russian People. In 1917 he became metropolitan of Moscow. On Nov. 5 (18), 1917, he was elected patriarch at the First All-Russian Local Council.

Tikhon condemned the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and he attacked the Soviet decree on the separation of church and state. In his pronouncements he anathematized Soviet power and called on believers not to submit to it. He spoke out against the expropriation of church valuables to aid the starving.

Tikhon was prosecuted in May 1922 for counterrevolutionary activity and was placed under house arrest in the Don Monastery. The Second All-Russian Local Council, convoked amid church controversy by the renovationists in May 1923, divested him of the title of patriarch. With the backing of his sympathizers, however, he refused to recognize his removal as legitimate. Eventually, Tikhon was persuaded that an open struggle against the new social order, which enjoyed the support of the entire people, would destroy the influence of the church among the population. In a letter of June 16, 1923, to the Supreme Court of the RSFSR, he acknowledged his guilt, disassociated himself from counterrevolution, and requested a pardon. His case was dismissed by a decree of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR on Mar. 21, 1924.

In his will Tikhon urged believers to cooperate with Soviet power. Soon after Tikhon’s death, the metropolitan Sergius became locum tenens of the patriarchate.


Plaksin, R. Iu. Krakh tserkovnoi kontrrevoliutsii, 1917–1923 gg. Moscow, 1968.
Chertkov, A. B. Krakh. Moscow, 1968.
Shishkin, A. A. Sushchnost’ i kriticheskaia otsenka’obnovlencheskogo” raskola russkoi pravoslavnoi iserkvi. Kazan, 1970.
References in classic literature ?
Tikhon knew that neither the son's arrival nor any other unusual event must be allowed to disturb the appointed order of the day.
And with a glance round, she smiled at Tikhon, at her husband, and at the footman who accompanied them.
You've grown older, Tikhon," he said in passing to the old man, who kissed his hand.
When the twenty minutes had elapsed and the time had come for the old prince to get up, Tikhon came to call the young prince to his father.
said the old man, shaking his powdered head as much as the tail, which Tikhon was holding fast to plait, would allow.
said he, rising from his chair and pacing up and down the room followed by Tikhon, who ran after him, handing him different articles of clothing.
This meant that Tikhon was not handing him the waistcoat he wanted.
Elsa Ibrahimova`s works were highly praised by such famous composers as Tikhon Khrennikov, Georgy Sviridov, Otar Taktakishvili, Jovdat Hajiyev, Gara Garayev, etc.
On Monday, flanked by the patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church at a press conference in Moscow, the influential Russian Orthodox Church Bishop Tikhon Shevkunovwho is closely linked to Vladimir Putin and serves as the titular chair of the commission charged with investigating the execution of the last Czar, his family, and retinuecalled for an investigation into the circumstances surrounding the death of Nicholas II in Yekaterinburg.
At the same event, Father Tikhon Shevkunov, a Russian Orthodox Church bishop, said that, according to "the most rigorous approach to the version of ritual murder, a significant part of the church commission [on Nicholas II's killing] has no doubt that this murder was ritual.
Early on Robert Lewandowski's movement got him to the bye-line for a cutback that Thiago rifled home, only for Celtic to breathe when assistant Tikhon Kalugin flagged for the ball going out of play in a debatable shout.
In the same year, the Bolsheviks organized show trials of the Russian Orthodox patriarch Tikhon and the metropolitan Benjamin; two thousand church hierarchs, including Benjamin, were shot as a result.