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(stool out), the formation of aboveground shoots from a node located at the base of the principal shoot in grasses and some other plants. A tillering node consists of a number of short, neighboring internodes, from whose buds lateral shoots are formed. Daughter lateral shoots develop from the axillary buds of the sheath, which either remain inside the sheath (in-travaginal shoots) or pierce the sheath and emerge to the outside (extravaginal shoots). If the shoots grow at an angle to the main shoot, a loose shrub forms; if they grow vertically, a compact shrub develops. As a result of the development of numerous shoots from the tillering node, perennial plants form turf. Long shoots distributed horizontally form rootstocks when they are underground (for example, wheatgrass) or offshoots when they are aboveground, (for example, meadow grass and reed).

In annual plants, tillering occurs early in their life (in winter plants, during autumn and spring; in spring plants, during spring) and ends with their actual shooting. In perennial plants, tillering is interrupted only during flowering and fruit-bearing and continues until the end of the vegetative period. During tillering not all shoots flower and yield a harvest; some die off, not attaining full development.

A distinction is made between total frutescence (the total number of shoots in the bush) and productive frutescence (the number of fruit-bearing shoots). The productivity of a plant depends on the species, variety, germination conditions, and, in perennial plants, the age and ability to furnish reserve organic substances. The longer the tillering period, the greater the shoot formation. Tillering also depends on agricultural methods: the time and rate of sowing (early sowing usually causes greater tillering; in dense plantings there is less), seed quality (the larger the seed, the greater the tillering), depth of planting, and application of fertilizers. Intensified tillering, within certain limits, increases the harvest. Late-forming shoots (aftergrowth) do not yield a harvest and weaken the development of productive stems. In pastures and hay fields, tillering is regulated by applying fertilizers (mainly nitrogenous ones), changing the water regimen, and rotating crops.


References in periodicals archive ?
The same trend was recorded when thiourea concentrations were applied at tillering, jointing and booting stages.
1992) reported that late planting results in poor tillering, reduces the tillering period and more chances of winter injury.
2003) showed that the negative effects of reducing P availability on wheat tillering are more significant than decreasing N supply.
The lowest CGR sowing was recorded in I1 and the maximum CGR when crop was irrigated at tillering + anthesis + stem elongation + grain decelopment stages.
There is no literature published on the tillering of this species in pastures under higher stocking rate as a function of the use of supplements.
Tillering plays an important role in determining rice grain yield as it is closely related to panicle number per unit area (Miller et al.
Keeping in view all these, this study was conducted to find out the effects of late sowing on germination, tillering and grain yield of wheat crop.
1995) drought at tillering stage has shown a linear decrease in radiation use efficiency of a cereal crop and drought at the middle or late period of growing season does not have any effect on radiation use efficiency.
Also, dead heart at tillering stage was investigated and interactions of varieties types and damage were discussed for 12 varieties.
Thus, plant tillering was not hindered which resulted in similar yield per plant among the two plant types.