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Timişoara(tēmēshwä`rä), Hung. Temesvár, city (1990 pop. 351,293), W Romania, in the BanatBanat
, region extending across W Romania, NE Serbia, and S Hungary. The term banat originally referred to any of several frontier provinces of Hungary and Croatia that were ruled by bans (governors).
..... Click the link for more information. , on the Beja Canal. The chief city of the former Banat of Temesvar, it is a railroad hub and an industrial center, with engineering works, plants processing food and tobacco, and factories manufacturing textiles, machinery, and chemicals. Timişoara is a Roman Catholic and an Orthodox episcopal see and has a university (founded 1945) and other institutions of higher education. It was an ancient Roman settlement and came under Magyar domination in 896 and was annexed to Hungary in 1010. An important frontier fortress, Timişoara was held by the Turks from 1552 until its liberation in 1716 by Eugene of SavoyEugene of Savoy,
1663–1736, prince of the house of Savoy, general in the service of the Holy Roman Empire. Born in Paris, he was the son of Eugène, comte de Soissons of the line of Savoy-Carignano, and Olympe Mancini, niece of Cardinal Mazarin.
..... Click the link for more information. . The Treaty of Passarowitz (1718) formally restored it to Austria-Hungary. It passed to Romania by the Treaty of Trianon (1920). In Dec., 1989, demonstrations protesting the removal of an outspoken priest, Láslo Tökés, sparked the revolution that led to the downfall of Nicolae CeauşescuCeauşescu, Nicolae
, 1918–89, Romanian statesman. The son of a peasant, he early became active in the Romanian Communist movement and was arrested as a revolutionary; he spent the late 1930s and early 40s in prison, where he became acquainted with the future first
..... Click the link for more information. 's Communist regime. The inner city is surrounded by boulevards, which have replaced the former ramparts. The Roman Catholic and Orthodox cathedrals, the city hall, and other important buildings date from the 18th cent. A regional museum is housed in the 14th–15th-century Hunyadi castle.
a city in western Rumania; situated on the canalized part of the Bega River, which connects Timişoara with the Danube. Administrative center of the district of Timişoara. Population, 20,500 (1974). A transportation junction, Timişoara has enterprises of the machine-building (electric motors, agricultural equipment) and textile industries. Food-processing enterprises produce sugar, alcoholic beverages, and canned vegetables and fruit. Chemicals, leather and footwear, and china and porcelain are also produced. A petrochemical combine has been under construction (1976). The city has a university.
References to Timişoara as a fortress date from the 14th century. Architectural monuments include a baroque church and monasteries (18th century) and Huniazi Castle (15th—19th centuries; now a museum of local lore). The city has a notable theater, which was built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Modern structures built since the late 1940’s, when the center of the city was reconstructed, include a new building for the university (1968), a sports complex (1969), and the Continental Hotel (1971).