Timurids

Timurids

(tĭmo͝or`ĭdz), dynasty founded by TimurTimur
or Tamerlane
, c.1336–1405, Mongol conqueror, b. Kesh, near Samarkand. He is also called Timur Leng [Timur the lame]. He was the son of a tribal leader, and he claimed (apparently for the first time in 1370) to be a descendant of Jenghiz Khan.
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 (or Tamerlane). After the death of Timur (1405) there was a struggle for power over his empire, which then extended from the Euphrates River to the Jaxartes (Syr Darya) and Indus rivers. The western empire, which included Tabriz and Baghdad, lasted only a few years because of internal wars. The so-called Black Sheep Turkmen horde brought it to an end when they took (1410) Baghdad. Shah Rukh, Timur's son, ruled (1409–46) the eastern empire, including Khorasan and Transoxiana (region E of the Amu Darya, or Oxus, River). He fought the Black Sheep and succeeded in recapturing Tabriz and much of W Persia. His domain was the focal point of trade between the East and the West, and it attained a spectacular prosperity. Because all the Persian cities were desolated by previous wars, the seat of Persian culture was now in Samarkand and Herat; these cities became the center of the Timurid renaissance. This cultural rebirth had a double character; on one hand, there was a renewal of Persian civilization and art (distinguished by extensive adaptations from the Chinese), and on the other, an original national literature in the Turk-Jagatai language, which borrowed from Persian sources. Shah Rukh was succeeded by his son, Ulugh Beg (ruled 1447–49). He had earlier been (1409–47) viceroy of Transoxiana. He constructed many public buildings and was a patron of Persian art and literature; he made Samarkand a center of Muslim civilization. After his succession (ruled 1447–49) to the throne the Timurid empire fell into anarchy; the Turkmen horde known as the White Sheep conquered much territory, while the Uzbeks looted Samarkand. Petty princes took over the rule, and local dynasties sprang up. One of these princes, and the last of the Timurids, was BaburBabur
[Turk.,=lion], 1483–1530, founder of the Mughal empire of India. His full name was Zahir ud-Din Muhammad. A descendant of Timur (Tamerlane) and of Jenghiz Khan, he succeeded (1494) to the principality of Fergana in central Asia.
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Timurids

 

a dynasty that ruled in Maveraun-Nahr, Khwarizm, Khorasan, and other territories from 1370 to 1507.

The Timurid dynasty was founded by Tamerlane, who divided the state among his sons and grandsons while he was still alive. After Tamerlane’s death, the Timurids declared themselves independent sovereigns and began an internecine struggle for supreme power. In the early 15th century two empires were in fact formed. One was ruled by Tamerlane’s youngest son, Shah Rukh (1409–47), and was centered in Herat (Khorasan), and the other was ruled by Shah Rukh’s son Ulug Beg and was centered in Samarkand.

In 1447, after his father’s death, Ulug Beg became ruler of the entire Timurid state. After his death, however, the dynastic struggle resumed. During the reign of Shah Sultan Husayn (1469–1506), culture flourished in Herat. By the early 16th century the domains of the Timurids, which had been weakened by feudal wars, fell into decay and during the reign of the sons of Sultan Husayn were conquered by the Uzbeks. One of the Timurids, Zahir al-Din Muhammad Baber (1483–1530), founded the Great Mogul Dynasty in India in 1526; this dynasty existed until 1858.

REFERENCE

Bartol’d, V. V. “Ulugbek i ego vremia.” Soch., vol. 2, part 2. Moscow, 1964.
References in periodicals archive ?
The land of the Ghaznavids and subsequentiy the Timurids, thus, inherited a formidable legacy which they, in turn, developed further.
Indeed, the collections of foreign courts -- from the Mamluks and Ottomans in the Mediterranean, to the Aqqoyunlu and the Timurids of central Asia and Persia, to the rich empires in India and China -- paled in comparison to European courtly collections.
(35) However, it is not clear how Hanafi law on ihya' was applied by the Timurids of Khurasan, and especially with respect to mawat lands conveyed into waqf.
It presents a chronological survey of the Kurdish princely dynasties up to the 1590s and of the Ottoman imperial dynasty with reference to other dynasties such as the Safavids, Timurids, and Aqqoyunlus.
Lying on the traditional silk route between East and West, Uzbekistan has also been the center of commercial and economic activities in the region which attracted the attention of great imperial states of the past, such as the Macedonians, Persians, Abbasids, Seljuks, Mongols, Timurids and Romanovs.
The Registan Square was rebuilt several times between 1370 and 1500 by the Timurids.
As Beatrice Manz puts it in the introduction to her recent study of the Timurids, "How was it possible to keep control over an extensive region with so few of the tools that modern governments possess?" (5) The short answer to that question is, of course, that it was impossible to wield control over such a vast territory and that large parts of the realm went unpatrolled by tax collectors and army recruiters.
So-called "evening museums" will be organized in State Museum of History, State Museum of Timurids History and Karakalpakstan State Museum of Art named after Igor Savitsky.
On the other hand, according to the studies conducted by the author during Atabakan, al-Muzaffar and Timurids periods, several buildings such as schools were built in Yazd that some of them have been built or completed by women, especially wives of sponsors.
By 1212 Ghorids' empire was reduced and marginalised, though, short-lived and petty, its remnant states remained in power until the arrival of Timurids in late 14th Century.
Saveh was again sacked by the Timurids, but later grew under the Safavids.
The exhibition features 37 historical objects from the MIA's collection -- artifacts from four dynasties with connections to Afghanistan: the Ghaznavids (977-1186 CE), the Timurids (1370-1506 CE), the Mughals (1526-1857 CE), and the Safavids (1501-1722 CE), and 37 contemporary pieces created specially for the show by TMI students, who drew inspiration from the former.