Doing so in an integrative nature, in which Tinbergen
's questions are not merely descriptors of unrelated studies but a protocol for integrating levels of analysis, is even more onerous.
This position is to be contrasted with that of Jan Tinbergen
, who has never been interested in theorizing for theory's sake.
Information for Larus dominicanus was derived from numerous sources (Tinbergen
1959; Saunders 1971; Watson 1975; Soper 1976; Nugent 1982; Cramp 1983; Robertson 1985; Ehrlich et al.
's method, which has been the method of most model builders ever since, explains whatever temporary accidental components there may be in the data (regardless of whether they are measurement errors), as well as the enduring components.
and Daan 1990) and parts of the model of Rowe et al.
First, cost-benefit analyses of adaptive function in extant taxa do not address hypotheses of character origin but rather are inherently studies of selective maintenance (Tinbergen
1964; Sherman 1988).
(11) Among the "pioneers", Tinbergen
(1977) has stressed that economic growth should be firmly linked to the profess of income distribution.
'A note on Tinbergen
on the optimum rate of saving', Economic Journal 67, pp.
In contrast to our earlier report (Verhulst and Tinbergen
1991), hatching date squared was not significant in this analysis.
For the first time in economics, often used by physicists since Newton, the gravity model was used to study the problems of the foreign trade of Tinbergen
(1962) and quickly gained popularity and widespread use.
De Waal dwells on pioneers such as Karl von Frisch, who "discovered that honeybees use a waggle dance to communicate distant food locations" (11); Konrad Lorenz, "the maestro of observation" who "urged us to grasp the whole animal before zooming in on its various parts" (19); and Niko Tinbergen
, who de Waal says "best spelled out the ethological agenda and turned the field into a respectable science" (41).