Tirana

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Tirana:

see TiranëTiranë
or Tirana
, city (1989 pop. 238,057), capital of Albania and of Tiranë dist., central Albania, on the Ishm River. It is the largest city and the chief industrial and cultural center of the country.
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, Albania.

Tirana

 

the capital of the People’s Republic of Albania and the main political, economic, and cultural center of the country. Tirana is situated in an intermontane valley at an elevation of 89 m above sea level, in the foothills of the Kruja-Dajti Mountains, 40 km from the Adriatic Sea. Tirana has a subtropical Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers (average July temperature, 25°C) and humid, mild winters (average January temperature, 4°–5°C). Annual precipitation is 1,376 mm. Tirana is a separate administrative unit. Area, 30 sq km. Population, more than 200,000 (1975; 11,000 in 1923, 40,000 in 1939, 108,000 in 1955, and 136,300 in 1960).

Administration. Tirana is under republic jurisdiction and is the administrative center of Tirana District. The city’s governing body is the People’s Council, elected for a three-year term by all citizens who have reached the age of 18. People’s councils are also elected in the urban districts of Tirana. These councils elect executive and administrative bodies, called executive committees.

History. Tirana is first mentioned in 15th-century sources, which describe it as a small settlement. The city was established in the early 17th century. Its advantageous location at the crossroads of trade routes aided its development. Tirana was continually the arena of the Albanian people’s struggle against the Turkish conquerors and local feudal lords.

In January 1920 the Albanian National Congress, meeting in Lushnje, proclaimed Tirana the capital of Albania and the seat of government. In the 1920’s, the first trade unions came into being in Tirana. Tirana was occupied by fascist Italy from April 1939 to September 1943, when it was occupied by fascist Germany. The city was the center of the national liberation struggle of the Albanian people. In November 1941 the Communist Party of Albania was formed in Tirana. On Nov. 17, 1944, the city was liberated from the fascist German aggressors by the National Liberation Army. On Nov. 28, 1944, the popular democratic government moved to Tirana from Berat, and on Jan. 11, 1946, the People’s Republic of Albania was proclaimed. In the 1950’s, with the help of the USSR and other socialist countries, a number of modern enterprises were built in Tirana and several cultural institutions were established.

Economy. A significant portion of the country’s industry is concentrated in Tirana. The city has textile, food, tobacco, footwear, metalworking, and ceramic and glass industries. Among Tirana’s largest enterprises are a textile combine, a wool-weaving factory, a mechanical engineering plant, wood-products, footwear, and tobacco factories, a meat-packing plant, a distillery, a butter factory, a furniture factory, cement plants, a building-materials combine, a plant producing spare parts for tractors, and a charcoal-briquette factory. There are also many cooperative workshops and a district heat and power plant. Most of the industrial enterprises are located in the western and southwestern parts of the city. There are coal mines near Tirana, at Krraba and Priska. In 1951 the V. I. Lenin Hydroelectric Power Plant, the first in the country, was built near Tirana with Soviet assistance. Water flows to the plant’s turbines through tunnels from the mountain sources of the Selita River, and then through an aqueduct into the city. Tirana is linked by rail with the port of Durrës and the city of Miloti and by highway through the cities of Elbasan, Kruja, and Durrés with the other cities of Albania. Rinas Airport is located near Tirana.

Architecture and city planning. Tirana has a radial-ring layout. The old parts of the city have narrow, winding streets and buildings set far back in courtyards. An administrative and cultural center that was built in the 1920’s and 1930’s contains the Skanderbeg Square complex, a bank, a university, and the Opera and Ballet Theater. A plan for the modernization of the city was adopted for the period 1953–58 (architects G. Strazimiri and M. Mele). Extensive housing projects have been built, and the New Albania Film Studio was constructed (1952; Soviet architect G. L. Lavrov). The city has monuments to V. I. Lenin (cement, 1950’s; sculptor K. Hoshi) and to the Partisans (bronze, 1947; A. Mano).

Educational, scientific, and cultural institutions. Among Tirana’s educational institutions are the State University of Tirana and institutes of agriculture, fine arts, and physical culture. Scientific and cultural institutions in the city include the Albanian Academy of Sciences, the Central Research Station for Zootechnics, the Institute of Veterinary Research, the National Library, the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography, the Museum of the Struggle for National Liberation, the Natural Science Museum, and the Lenin-Stalin Museum.

Tirana is the home of many theaters, including the Opera and Ballet Theater (with a ballet school), the People’s Theater, the Variety Stage and Circus Theater, and the Puppet Theater. A conservatory and a philharmonic society, the A. Moissi Higher Schools for Actors, the J. Misja Arts Lycée, and the New Albania Film Studio are also located in the city.

Tirana

, Tiranë
the capital of Albania, in the central part 32 km (20 miles) from the Adriatic: founded in the early 17th century by Turks; became capital in 1920; the country's largest city and industrial centre. Pop.: 390 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Edith Hall, por sua vez, fala do embate entre gregos e persas como evento que teria "catalisado a invencao do barbaro" e permitido a associacao destes ultimos ao "demonio da tirania" (Hall, 1989, p.
Esta particular descripcion servira de sustento a Aristoteles quien definira a la tirania como un regimen desviado de la monarquia, que atiende al interes del propio monarca (68), y que ejerce un poder despotico sobre la comunidad politica (69).
Se dice que Solon, cuando Pisistrato pidio la guardia, se opuso diciendo que era mas sabio que los unos y mas valiente que los otros: mas sabio que cuantos n veian que Pisistrato aspiraba a la tirania, y mas valiente que los que viendolo se callaban.
Snyder, como lo reconocia en la entrarevista con Daniel Gascon publicada en estas paginas, no pretende que Sobre la tirania sea leido como un libro de historia.
La dictadura representa la legalizacion de la tirania, en la cual el tirano es legalmente convocado por una mas alta instancia de la constitucion republicana en momentos de peligro para proteger el orden existente (53).
Desde esa perspectiva, cabe pensar que ya el pensamiento filosofico de la Antiguedad (tal y como se encuentra sistematizado en las reflexiones de 62 Platon y Aristoteles) registra un desplazamiento de sentido en el uso del termino "tirania".
?O estamos acaso perfilando un fantasma que no existe, puesto que esos propios parametros permiten--como el caballo de Troya--que se los erosione desde su interior, como ocurre por ejemplo con el articulo sobre la "Tirania del paper" y con la convocatoria que estamos haciendo al abordar este asunto desde una revista hiperindexada?
Iconos de la tirania: la recepcion critica de 'Tirano Banderas' (1926-2000), es el mas reciente libro del profesor Dru Dougherty publicado en una coleccion especial auspiciada por la Biblioteca de la Catedra Valle-Inclan, a quien los estudiosos de Valle-Inclan agradecen trabajos memorables.
Lo que no se ha reconocido es que Toledo tambien utilizo la <<tirania>> inca como precedente para su propia agenda en el Peru, tomando cada elemento de la definicion de tirania, basada en Aristoteles y las Siete partidas, para formar su vision del gobernador andino ideal.
Para o filosofo a tirania dos costumes e habitos nos impede o livre exercicio da razao e de construirmos um juizo sobre o outro que leve em conta a propria diversidade humana.
En esas condiciones, ?como podemos evitar entonces que la democracia se convierta en una tirania?>> (37).
En su resena a mi libro, "Pornografia: la tirania de la mirada" (San Jose, Ediciones Arlekin, 2009), publicada en el numero XLV de esta misma Revista, el profesor Roberto Fragomeno ha hecho publicas nuestras convergencias en cuanto al rol politico que tendria que jugar el quehacer filosofico.