Tissaphernes


Also found in: Wikipedia.

Tissaphernes

(tĭs'əfûr`nēz), d. 395 B.C., Persian satrap of coastal Asia Minor (c.413–395 B.C.). He was encouraged by Alcibiades (412) to intervene in the Peloponnesian War in support of Sparta. Out of favor with Cyrus the YoungerCyrus the Younger,
d. 401 B.C., Persian prince, younger son of Darius II and Parysatis. He was his mother's favorite, and she managed to get several satrapies in Asia Minor for him when he was very young.
..... Click the link for more information.
, he rebuilt his fortunes by siding with Artaxerxes II and helping him to defeat Cyrus in the battle of CunaxaCunaxa
, ancient town of Babylonia, near the Euphrates River, NE of Ctesiphon. It was the scene of a battle (401 B.C.) between Cyrus the Younger and Artaxerxes II, described by Xenophon in the Anabasis.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (401). He pursued the retreating Greek allies (the Ten Thousand) and treacherously murdered ClearchusClearchus
, d. 401 B.C., Spartan officer, celebrated as the leader of the Ten Thousand. Sent in 410 to govern Byzantium, he made himself unpopular by his harsh discipline, and Alcibiades took the city in 408 B.C.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and four other Greek leaders (XenophonXenophon
, c.430 B.C.–c.355 B.C., Greek historian, b. Athens. He was one of the well-to-do young disciples of Socrates before leaving Athens to join the Greek force (the Ten Thousand) that was in the service of Cyrus the Younger of Persia.
..... Click the link for more information.
). Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus were the chief figures in Artaxerxes' reign. After Tissaphernes asserted supremacy over the Ionian cities, he was involved in war with the Spartans, and Agesilaus IIAgesilaus II
, c.444–360 B.C., king of Sparta. After the death of Agis I (398? B.C.), he was brought to power by Lysander, whom he promptly ignored. After the Peloponnesian War the Greek cities in Asia Minor had not been ceded to Persia despite Sparta's promises, and in
..... Click the link for more information.
 defeated him in 395. He was removed from office and assassinated.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
References in periodicals archive ?
(Spartan women were notoriously free with their favors.) Plutarch reports that Alcibiades "would say, in his vain way, he had not done this thing out of mere wantonness or insult, nor to gratify a passion, but that his race might one day be kings over the Lacedaemonians." Later, when the Spartans, led by the properly resentful Agis, grew suspicious of Alcibiades, he went over to the Persian satrap Tissaphernes, whom he charmed out of his silken trousers.
Their topics include the assassination of Tissaphernes: royal responses to military defeat in the Achaemenid Empire, military defeat in fifth-century Athens: Thucydides and his audience, Spartan responses to defeat: from a mythical Hysiae to a very real Sellasia, the ones who paid the butcher's bill: soldiers and war captives in Roman comedy, and the Roman emperor as Persian prisoner of war: remembering Shapur's capture of Valerian.
As he draws his dagger Tissaphernes in Otway's Alcibiades (1675) says "this dagger I as firmly hold" will do him "right" (1.1).
The first to speak suggests returning her and supports his argument by closing with an appeal to conventional morality: 'And at the same time, we'll be acting in a way that is moral to men and pious to the gods' (1,10,3 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] This manifestly plays off Tissaphernes' speech in the second book of the Anabasis, where the Persian noble asks Clearchus, 'Why ...
Stranded deep in enemy territory, the Spartan general Clearchus and the other Greek senior officers were subsequently killed or captured by treachery on the part of the Persian satrap (Governor) Tissaphernes. Aa Xenophon, one of three remaining leaders elected by the soldiers, played an instrumental role in encouraging the Greek army of 10,000 to march north across foodless deserts and snow-filled mountain passes towards the Black Sea and the comparative security of its Greek shoreline cities.
The topics include Xenophon's wicked Persian Tissaphernes, Darius I in Egypt, the philosopher's Zarathushtra, and early European visitors to the ruins of Persepolis.
Before the turn of the century, another prominent member of this clan, Alcibiades, having fled Sparta where he had been hatching plots against his own city Athens, entered the service of Tissaphernes, now inciting the Greek cities of Asia Minor to revolt against Athens.
"At Sparta," Plutarch tells us, "he was devoted to athletic exercises, was frugal and reserved; in Ionia, luxurious, gay, and indolent; in Thrace, always drinking; in Thessaly, ever on horseback; and when he lived with Tissaphernes the Persian satrap, he exceeded the Persians themselves in magnificence and pomp."
The geographical going-up of Cyrus and his army of Persians and Greek mercenaries turned out to be a moral, political, and psychological going-down: Cyrus was killed at the battle of Cunaxa in 401; the Persians in his force abandoned the Greeks and went over to Artaxarxes; and the five main Greek commanders (including Clearchus, Proxenus, and Meno), together with twenty other officers, were murdered shortly thereafter through the treachery of the Persian commander Tissaphernes. The leaderless Ten Thousand found themselves surrounded by a vast army in the heart of enemy territory, an enemy whose hostility was intensified by two invasions of Hellas during the preceding century that ended in humiliating defeat at the hands of the Greeks.
If he came to Tissaphernes, lieutenaunt of the mightie king of Persia: he farre exceeded the magnificence of Persia in pompe and sumptuousnes.
Andrewes(3) thinks of other Greeks at Tissaphernes' court as a possible source, or even friends of Phrynichus.
However that may be, he in the end personally conducted his force to meet Thibron at Pergamos, and (it seems generally agreed) joined the latter's campaign against the Persian Tissaphernes as commander of the veterans of the long march.